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Free Will in Montaigne, Pascal, Diderot, Rousseau, Voltaire and Sartre

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Mary Efrosini Gregory

Free Will in Montaigne, Pascal, Diderot, Rousseau, Voltaire and Sartre takes the reader on a journey through the corridors of time to explore the evolution of thought regarding free will. The arguments and works presented in this volume raise critical and timeless issues for ethicists, the criminal justice system and the responsible citizen. Montaigne held that humans can break out of the determinist confines of their given cultures and acquired habits by employing reason, welcoming change and promoting education. In The Nun, Diderot chronicles portraits of pathology, records symptoms and leaves it up to the reader to decide whether the unfortunate victims are products of nature, nurture or both. Rousseau thought that civilized man, having joined society, surrenders his free will to the general will to enjoy protection of his person, family and property. Sartre, an indeterminist, averred that since humans have the capacity to be self-reflective, they can exercise creativity with regard to who and how they choose to be from moment to moment. Freud observed that we are marionettes whose strings are commandeered by various realms competing for dominance – the conscious and subconscious; id, ego and superego. Bernays, Freud’s nephew, employed psychoanalytic theory as a tool to advise corporations how to entice the public to purchase their products when confronted with a range of choices. This book opens the door to lively classroom discussion on moral issues. French literature, philosophy, psychology and political science classes will find it an invaluable source presenting a wealth of views on free will.

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Index 285

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  Index A Aaron, Richard I. 106 Abyss 182 Acceptance of Christ 26–27, 55, 60–62, 66, 74–75, 79, 86, 91, 94 Adam 28, 47, 60, 69–70, 79, 81, 93–94, 96–97, 124, 146 Adam, Antoine 150 Advertising, methods of 16, 195, 197–98, 201–207 Aggression 108, 189, 191, 206–207 Alembert, Jean le Rond d’ 150, 202 Ambrose, Saint 70 Ammon, K. 217–18 Angels 27, 64, 68, 71, 74, 87, 90, 94, 102 Anguish 82, 128, 158–59, 162, 181 Anne, Queen 146 Anselm of Canterbury 79 Aristotle 33–34, 37, 41, 106, 137 Arminius 38 Arnauld, Agnes, Mother 50 Arnauld, Antoine 50, 97 Ashbrook, Tom 225 Augustine, Saint 27, 45–48, 50, 54, 57, 63, 66, 69–70, 73–75, 79–80, 93–94, 96, 102, 123, 126 Augustine’s mistranslation of Rom 5:12 46–47, 66, 69–70, 93–94, 101–102 Augustinians 46, 79–80, 82, 102, 153 Aurelius, Marcus 152 Authenticity Rousseau and 129–30 Sartre and 155–58, 160, 166, 169 Ayer, A.J. 9 Azkoul, Father Michael 70, 73–75 B Bad faith 156–58, 160, 168–69, 172, 182, 184 Barnes, Hazel E. 158 Barthez, Paul-Joseph 113 Beaumont, Christophe de 141 Beauvoir, Simone de 178 Being-for-itself 155–57, 159–60, 167, 171 Being-for-others 155–56, 178, 183 Being-in-itself 155–57, 159, 164, 167, 170–71, 177 Bereitschaftspotential (readiness- potential) 210–15 Berger, Theodore W. 220 Bernays, Edward bacon, method of advertising 197, 201, 204 Biography of an Idea:...

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