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Through the Northern Gate

Childhood and Growing Up in British Fiction, 1719-1901


Jacqueline Banerjee

This study challenges critical orthodoxy by showing that childhood became a focus of interest in British fiction well before the Romantic period. It also argues that children in the Victorian novel, far from being sentimental figures, are psychologically unique and contribute positively and significantly to the narrative discourse. Contemporary ideology, the novelists' autobiographical and humanitarian impulses, and gender issues, are all examined as factors in this development. Works by the major authors are analysed alongside others by non-canonical and children's writers.


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Notes on Editions xv


Notes on Editions All page references are given in parentheses in my text. Those to Jane Austen's novels are to the one-volume Penguin Complete Novels (1983), except in the case of The Watsons, which is not printed in that volume. References here are to the Penguin Lady Susan/The WatsonsjSandition (1974) edition, ed. Margaret Drabble. For Dickens, the Brontes and George Eliot, Penguin Classics editions have been used, with the following exceptions: Dickens -Oxford lllustrated editions of The Uncommercial Traveller and Reprinted Pieces (1958) and Christmas Stories (1956), and (for manuscript reference only) the Clarendon edition of Oliver Twist, ed. Kathleen Tillotson (1966); Charlotte Bronte-the Dent edition of The Professor and Emma: A Fragment (paperback, 1985 ); Anne Bronte-the Dent edition of Agnes Grey (published in one volume with The Tenant ofWildfell Hall, 1958). However, please note that references to The Tenant of Wildfell Hall itself are to the more complete Penguin edition. In references to the Penguin edition of Charles Dickens: Seleded Short Fidion, the abbreviation SSF is used; in those to George Eliot's Scenes of Clerical Life, the abbreviation SCL is used. References to Vanity Fair are also to the Penguin Classics edition. The original publication dates of works covered by these notes are given in a chronology immediately after the last chap- ter. These are followed by bibliographical details of all other material referred to, given under the single heading, Works Cited. This page intentionally left blank

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