Creativity and the Promise of Openness
Part One | New Forms of Educational Capitalism
Chapter 1 Cybernetic Capitalism, Informationalism and Cognitive Labor Michael A. Peters, Rodrigo Britez, and Ergin Bulut Cybernetics, Catastrophe, Chaos and Complexity Modern cybernetics began with Norbert Weiner who defined the field with his 1948 book Cybernetics: or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine where he developed the science of information feedback systems linking control and communication in an understand- ing of the computer as ‘ideal central nervous system to an apparatus for automatic control’ (Wiener, 1948, p. 36) and, therefore, referring to the automatic control of animal and machine. The prehistory of the term can be traced back at least to Plato where kybernētēs meaning ‘steersman’ or ‘governor’ (from the Latin gubernator)—the same root as government— was used to refer governing of the city-state as an art based on the metaphor of the art of navigation or steering a ship. Thus, from the be- ginning the term was associated with politics and the art of government as well as with communication and organization. It is not surprising, then, that ‘cybernetics’ should be a significant theoretical term in global studies particularly with the growth of cognate terms derived from the root ‘cyber’ as a synonym for ‘virtual’ and emblematic of the global, such as ‘cyberspace’, ‘cyberculture’ and ‘cyberpunk’. In this context cybernetics has figured in global studies as a code word for global communications and media studies. As an epistemology related to systemics and systems philosophy the term as functioned as an approach for investigating...
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