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Against the Christians

The Rise of Early Anti-Christian Polemic- Second Printing


Jeffrey W. Hargis

Against the Christians examines the anti-Christian polemic works of Celsus, Porphyry, and Julian the Apostate. The first book to analyze the phenomenon of early anti-Christian literature in depth, it chooses the critics' objection to Christian exclusivism as its starting point. The evolution in the polemic, from a rhetoric of radical distinction to one of «rhetorical assimilation,» reveals a sophisticated attempt to expose contradictions and inconsistencies within Christianity, while at the same time reflecting the process of fusion between Christianity and the culture of late antiquity.


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Notes 139


Notes CHAPTER 1 1. Rodney Stark, The Rise of Christianity (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1996). 2. Acts 14:16-17. 3. Averil Cameron, Christianity and the Rhetoric of Empire: The De- velopment of Christian Discourse (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991). 4. Theodore S. de Bruyn, "Ambivalence Within a 'Totalizing Dis- course': Augustine's Sermons on the Sack of Rome," Journal of Early Christian Studies 1/4 (1993): 406. 5. Tertullian Apology, trans. Rudolph Arbesmann, Emily Joseph Daly, and Edwin A. Quain, Fathers of the Church, Volume 10 (New York: Fathers of the Church, Inc., 1950) 1.7. 6. Pliny the Younger Epistles, 2 volumes, trans. William Melmoth, LCLedition (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1915, repr. 1940) 10.96. 7. Eusebius Ecclesiastical History, trans. Christian Frederick Cruse (New York: T. Mason & G. Lane, 1839; reprint, Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1991) 5.1. 8. Pliny the Younger Epistle 10.96. 9. Athenagoras A Plea for the Christians, trans. B. P. Pratten, ANF collection, Volume 2 (Edinburgh: T &T Clark, 1885; reprint, Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1989) 3. 10. Theophilus of Antioch To Autolycus, trans. Robert M. Grant (Ox- ford: Clarendon Press, 1970) 3.4. 11. Galen, Arabic fragment, quoted in Stephen Benko, "Pagan Criti- cism of Christianity During the First Two Centuries A.D.," Aufstieg und Niedergang der romischen Welt (ANRW) 11-23.2, ed. H. Temporini and W. Haase (Berlin, 1980), 1099. CHAPTER2 1. Acts of the Scillitan Martyrs, in H. Musurillo, ed., The Acts of the Christian Martyrs (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1972), 86-89. 140 Against the Christians...

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