The Art and Science of How People Learn - Revised Edition
Edited By Greg S. Goodman
Section IX: Educational Psychology Inside and Outside the Classroom
e_ch 25 thru 35_EdPsychReader_2013 11/9/2013 3:32 PM Page 404 to apply the solution to current teaching goals. Lesson Study typically spans weeks or months as teach- ers meet to talk about the issue, plan the lesson, observe each other’s teaching, and meet to discuss student learning. As teachers participate in Lesson Study groups, they actively discuss instructional interventions and share knowledge about how students will respond. Culminating from those dis- cussions, teachers produce a lesson plan that is the result of collective wisdom and experience. Teachers then build on that collective wisdom as they watch each other teach and consider how best to engage students in learning. RESEARCH ABOUT PLANNING The research on Lesson Study can be contextualized in the larger body of lesson planning research. The current thinking that lesson planning is a linear path that begins with a teaching objective is based on Tyler’s work, which was published in 1949 ( John, 2006). Tyler (1949) proposed that lesson plan- ning should consist of four essential elements: educational purposes or objectives, classroom experi- ences to attain these purposes, effective organization of the experiences, and determining whether the purposes are attained. According to Yinger (1980), “Education, for the most part, adopted a ratio- nal model of planning based on models from economics and from national and city planning” (p. 108). The rational method of planning requires teachers to set goals, formulate alternatives, predict out- comes, and evaluate the effectiveness of reaching those goals. This linear, rational type...