Enhancing Teacher Metacognitive Learning to Improve Student Academic Performance
Part I. Theoretical and Empirical Basis forTeacher Concept Mapping
theoretical and empirical basis for teacher concept mapping Designing for learning is a blend of art and science that entails disciplined improvisation from thoughtful instructional planning (Hammerness, Darling- Hammond, & Bransford, 2005; Sawyer, 2004). What does this principle really mean in practice? How can teachers engage in systematic work within a disci- pline and improvise at the same time? One way to explore this paradoxical ten- sion is through the qualities of adaptive expertise. To improvise in a disciplined way is the essence of adaptive expertise. Adaptive experts adopt a learning ori- entation to their work to continually learn from what they do and then use that learning to improve their practice. Adaptive teachers intentionally investigate the adequacy of their own knowledge for teaching particular subject areas and seek new ways to extend their knowledge bases for teaching. The instructional planning context is particularly apt for nurturing think- ing associated with adaptive expertise in teaching. While establishing rou- tines for planning and teaching, adaptive teachers would adapt these practices to the complex, dynamic demands of the classroom environment, analyze ev- idence of their impact, and incorporate this learning into their subsequent planning. Adaptive teachers would guard against complacency in using estab- lished routines by stopping to question their purpose and value. In essence, adaptive teaching would entail a metacognitive approach to teaching that 4 using concept mapping to foster adaptive expertise enables self-directed learning. This metacognitive approach involves making the thinking processes required in instructional planning visible for critique. While lesson...
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