The leading markets for this book will be major public and Division 1 research university libraries and university courses in education policy, education law, education history, political science, and public policy.
3 A Nation at Risk and a Decade of Reports (1980s–1990s)
· 3 · a nation at risk and a decade of reports (1980s–1990s) Milton Friedman has a famous quote on the relationship between crisis, ide- ology, and change, and the role of the intellectual class in mediating among the three. Only a crisis—actual or perceived—produces real change. When that crisis occurs, the actions that are taken depend on the ideas that are lying around. That, I believe, is our basic function: to develop alternatives to existing policies, to keep them alive and available until the politically impossible becomes politically inevitable (1982, p. ix). This chapter is in large part the story of a concerted effort by think tanks, governmental agencies, and blue- ribbon commissions to establish a volumi- nous rhetorical infrastructure that both kept the seed ideas of standards- based education “alive and available” and fomented the sense of crisis that led to their eventual “inevitability.” This chapter hopes to gauge the impact of A Nation at Risk and a plethora of other influential reports circulating in the educational policy debate of the 1980s and early 1990s, to examine how they prepared the way for standards- based education to emerge as one of the most influential American K–12 education reform ideas in following decades. Briefs from national business organizations like the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, National Association of 34 a policy history of standards-based education in america Manufacturers, Committee for Economic Development, and—especially— the Business Roundtable set the parameters of the policy agenda and delin- eated many...
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