Implementing Positive Behavior Support in Early Childhood Through High School
Edited By Chun Zhang, Carlos McCray and Su-Je Cho
6. Class-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports in the Elementary School
SU-JE CHO, KWANG-SUN CHO BLAIR, AND JI-RYUN KIM
American education guidelines are changing how schools respond to students with academic and behavioral difficulties. As a complement to such guidelines, Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) provides educators with an effective means of addressing students’ behavior problems. Approximately 14,000 schools across the United States currently implement School-Wide PBIS (SWPBIS; see www.pbis.org). A growing body of evidence shows SWPBIS as highly effective and practical in both reducing problem behavior and increasing academic performance of primary and secondary school students (Bradshaw, Mitchell, & Leaf, 2010; Horner et al., 2009; Muscott, Mann, & LeBrun, 2008; Safran & Oswald, 2003).
Despite the increased implementation of SWPBIS, many teachers, especially teachers of students from culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) backgrounds in urban schools, struggle with establishing effective classroom routines and structure. Without that routine and structure, success in managing challenging behaviors displayed by some students in their classrooms is hit or miss (Pavri, 2004). Research shows student behavior problems are more common in urban schools than in suburban or rural schools (Dunbar, 2004). A disproportionately high number of African American students experience office discipline referrals (e.g., Skiba et al., 2011), harsher punishments for behavioral violations (e.g., Skiba, Michael, Nardo, & Peterson, 2002), suspension and expulsion. These behavioral outcomes correlate to poorer academic outcomes. Urban schools often struggle with higher levels of violence, mobility, truancy, under-qualified staff, and staff turnover; thus, they may require ← 115 | 116 → intense levels of support...
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