Creativity and the Promise of Openness
Introduction: Global Science and Knowledge Capitalism
The emerging political economy of global science is a significant factor influencing development of national systems of innovation, and economic, social and cultural development, with the rise of multinational actors and a new mix of corporate, private/public and community involvement.1 It is only since the 1960s with the development of research evaluation and increasing sophistication of bibliometrics and webometrics that it has been possible to map the emerging economy of global science, at least on a comparative national and continental basis.2 The question of the political economy of world science and its geographic distribution cannot be easily separated from its measurement and evaluation or the pattern of journal ownership.
Increasingly, emphasis has fallen on the economics and productivity of science in both firms and higher education institutions, as policymakers and politicians seek to foster innovation and to draw strong links between scientific performance and emerging economic structures (Crespi & Geuna, 2004, 2005). In these science policy discussions the accent often falls on measuring scientific productivity, on ‘intellectual property’ and the codification of knowledge, and on research collaboration, partnership and cooperation in regional, national and international contexts. Investment in science, engineering and technology has received strong attention from governments as the basis of the ‘knowledge economy’ and most governments now look to their international science policy strategy to emphasize national competitive advantage and to encourage research collaboration in global science projects.
Indeed, it is the age of global science, but not primarily in the sense of ‘universal...
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