Global Perspectives, Experiences and Implications
CHAPTER TWO: Multiple Paths to the 21st Century: National Responses to Enhancing Education with ICTs in Chile, India, and Turkey: Daniel Light
Despite widespread interest in the educational uses of information and communication technologies (ICT) around the world and a multitude of initiatives promoting the use of ICT in schools, we know relatively little about ICT integration in developing countries. We know about effective ICT integration in wealthy countries, but we know much less for developing countries; this is especially true in large-scale interventions in developing countries. This is a matter of increasing urgency, because even as more and more research conducted in schools in wealthy countries shows that ICT can have a significant impact when used appropriately (Balanskat, Blamire, & Kefala, 2006; Lemke, 2006; Tamim, Bernard, Borokhovski, Abrami, & Schmid, 2011), the research on educational technology programs in developing countries suggests that ICT integration is a complicated and frequently unsuccessful process (Akbaba-Altun, 2006; Comenius, 2008; Kraemer, Dedrick, & Sharma, 2009; Light & Rockman, 2008; Vyasulu Reddi & Sinha, 2003; Winthrop & Smith, 2012).
Integrating ICT effectively often requires improving teacher knowledge and skills, as well as fostering changes in contextual influences on teacher practice like curriculum fxrameworks, leadership, and the vision of good teaching promoted by the system (Hepp, Hinostroza, Laval, & Rehbein, 2004; Kozma, 2005a, 2005b). Effective integration strategies also require an understanding of how these new resources and tools will integrate with existing tools, resources, and teaching approaches. This understanding regarding how technology fits into the complex ← 40 | 41 → realities of classrooms was a critical impetus for change in developed nations (Cuban, 1993;...