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Cross-Media Promotion

Jonathan Hardy

Cross-Media Promotion is the first book-length study of a defining feature of contemporary media, the promotion by media of their allied media interests. The book explores the range of forms of cross-promotion including synergistic marketing of mega-brands such as Harry Potter; promotional plugs in news media; repurposing media content, stars and brands across other media and outlets; product placement, and the integration of media content and advertising.
Incorporating specialist literature, yet written in a clear, accessible style, the book combines three areas of study: media industry practices, media policy, and media theory. It examines the dynamics of cross-media promotion across converging media, drawing on a range of examples from the United States and the United Kingdom. Synergy and intertextuality are explored alongside critical debates about the ‘problems’ of cross-promotion. The book also offers a critical evaluation of media policy responses from the late 1980s to the present, which the book argues, have failed to grapple with the problems of media power, market power and commercialism generated by intensifying cross-media promotion.
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6. Changes in UK Policy and Regulation: An Overview

Extract

CHAPTER SIX

Changes in UK Policy and Regulation: An Overview

Introduction

For his Enquiry into Standards of Cross Media Promotion (1991), John Sadler arranged correspondence with several British embassies, including the United States, West Germany, France, Italy, Canada and Australia, and the permanent representative to the European Community. From the responses received he concluded that none of the countries had introduced specific measures governing cross-media promotion.1 In the years since, no detailed study of the regulation of cross-media promotion has been carried out either at national or supranational level or comparatively. The aim of this chapter is to describe and analyse the ways in which cross-media promotion has been constituted as an object of policy and addressed in regulation. The chapter traces how cross-media promotion has been subject to regulation. The first part describes how CMP has been addressed and constrained in regulations governing media ownership, newspapers and advertising (with broadcasting dealt with more fully in chapter seven). The second part examines the Sadler Enquiry as a key moment in which CMP became an explicit object of policy. Part three situates responses to CMP in the wider context of shifts in policy, notably towards more neoliberal, deregulatory approaches.

Cross-Promotion as an Object of Regulation

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