52 Orientation in the Meaning Structure of Texts—References in the Text
Texts are not formed by a simple stringing together of words and clauses. They are structured as a sense-unified whole through an interlacing of many and diverse references in addition to the whole clause.1 The hearer (reader) is oriented as a result towards every passage of the continually running text, as it has combined the individual signs and their meanings with one another and with the speech situation.
In this paragraph are described how references occur in the Hebrew text and what is referenced.
Direction of Reference
Inside the text, reference is made in the following ways:
backward (anaphoric)2 to things already mentioned and known to the hearer/reader,
forward (kataphoric) to an expected new thing, and
out of the text (deictic) to the communication situation itself.
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