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Grammar of Biblical Hebrew


Wolfgang Schneider

Although Wolfgang Schneider’s Grammatik des biblischen Hebräisch: Ein Lehrbuch serves primarily as an introductory textbook to biblical Hebrew, it makes an invaluable contribution to the text-linguistic study of Hebrew Bible. Schneider’s understanding of narrative syntax and discourse linguistics continues to influence such grammarians as Niccacci and Talstra, through whom his work is validated. His discussion of clauses and text syntax remains pertinent to Hebrew students and professors alike. With this English translation, Schneider’s work may now make a worldwide contribution to biblical studies by clarifying for the student the contribution of text grammar to the reading of the biblical text.
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52 Orientation in the Meaning Structure of Texts—References in the Text


Texts are not formed by a simple stringing together of words and clauses. They are structured as a sense-unified whole through an interlacing of many and diverse references in addition to the whole clause.1 The hearer (reader) is oriented as a result towards every passage of the continually running text, as it has combined the individual signs and their meanings with one another and with the speech situation.

In this paragraph are described how references occur in the Hebrew text and what is referenced.

52.1 References

Direction of Reference

Inside the text, reference is made in the following ways:

backward (anaphoric)2 to things already mentioned and known to the hearer/reader,

forward (kataphoric) to an expected new thing, and

out of the text (deictic) to the communication situation itself.

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