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Interrogating (Hi)stories

Establishing the Educational Relevance of Spiritual Development Through Critical Historiography


Audrey Lingley

In Interrogating (Hi)stories, Audrey Lingley uses a critical constructivist perspective to problematize the absence of the spiritual dimension of human growth from pedagogical models that emphasize responsiveness to developmental psychology. The book investigates this conspicuous absence through critical historiographical research; it is a critical interrogation of the tacit understandings that guide education in general and middle grades reform in particular. The author offers practical, classroom-based implications and culturally respectful language for educators who believe spirituality is a legitimate aspect of human growth and learning in a public school setting.
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Chapter Five: Research Methods Illustrated


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Chapter Five

Research Methods Illustrated

IN this chapter, I offer a detailed account of my research methods for a critical historiography. I begin with a description of the validity strategies used during data collection, and then outline the specific processes used during the three rounds of data analysis: initial coding, focused coding, and contrapuntal reading. This account of my specific processes was rendered using the memos I wrote before, during, and after data analysis. Because of the uniqueness of my research design, I decided to include an appendix with artifacts from my data analysis processes. I include these artifacts not only as documentation for this account of my research methods during data analysis but also as references for future critical historiographical research projects.

Throughout this research, consistent with the principles of critical historiography, I have generated results that were then used as source materials for further loops of the hermeneutic cycle. The results of each round of data analysis were:

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