Establishing the Educational Relevance of Spiritual Development Through Critical Historiography
Chapter Six: Paradigms of the (Hi)stories
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Paradigms of the (Hi)stories
CARDINAL questions for historiographical research in education that is guided by critical constructivism are: Who speaks with authority, and who is expected to listen? What worldviews and perspectives can be interpreted from the ways in which a (hi)story is told? What epistemological assumptions ground theories about learning? How does the construction of knowledge in schools— which is shaped by powerful historical, cultural, and political forces—in turn shape teachers and students? From an interrogation of a (hi)story, what can be understood about the hybridity of teaching and learning, of knowledge production and youth development?
When it comes to communicating results of critical constructivist research, Kincheloe (2008) wrote, “When critical constructivists produce knowledge, they are not attempting to reduce variables but to maximize (Knobel, 1999) them. Such maximization produces a thicker, more detailed, more complex understanding of the social, political, economic, cultural, psychological, and pedagogical world” (p. 3). In this chapter, I describe the results of my first two rounds of analysis of the data through a series of in-depth narratives on the paradigms for the three (hi)stories. The results of the third and final round of analysis, the conceptual contents of the area of paradigmatic convergence, are presented in Chapter Seven. As with the accounting of the research methods in Chapter Five, I organized the narratives by data set, in the same order I analyzed the data. These narratives were constructed...
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