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Pedagogy for Restoration

Addressing Social and Ecological Degradation through Education


David Krzesni

Pedagogy for Restoration seeks to understand the conditions leading to the destruction of Earth in order to discover pedagogy for restoration. As we degrade the planet we degrade ourselves and as we degrade ourselves we degrade the planet. Moral development and socialization significantly influence our participation in, construction of, or resistance to the systems of oppression that degrade us. The process of restorative education recognizes that humans are fundamentally good and moral and seeks to promote healthy moral development. We must help students meet their basic needs, center their own identities and experience, and simultaneously emphasize community and relationships to help them find a sense of purpose. These efforts facilitate social and ecological restoration by allowing students to reach a physical and emotional place that is conducive to learning and self-efficacy so that they may engage with whatever issues they find important in their own way and on their own terms.
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Chapter 4. Morality


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The development of empathy and its relation to guilt, in consideration of empathic bias, and contemporaneous cognitive development shape one’s moral development (Hoffman, 2000). According to one’s experience, throughout the empathy and moral development process one’s sense of morality may differ significantly from others. Thus, it is useful to disambiguate morality into distinctly philosophical and psychological components. The psychological component relates to how one’s sense of morality develops and the philosophical component relates to the nature of morality (Kahn, 1999). Hoffman (2000) generally proceeded without such disambiguation and favors a psychological approach to morality focused on development. According to Hoffman (2000), one’s philosophic concept of morality is significantly a result of socialization in the moral development process (following David Hume).1

I proceed with Hoffman’s (2000) framework for morality, which provides significant depth and insight, but it will be useful to begin with a brief exploration of morality as a more distinctly deontological idea. Kahn (1999) considered morality more philosophically than did Hoffman (2000) and suggested that morality is objective (Immanuel Kant as interpreted by Eliot Turiel). Kahn (1999) defined two categories of moral judgments: obligatory moral judgments and discretionary moral judgments. Obligatory judgments ← 55 | 56 → are defined as (1) universally applicable to all morally similar situations; (2) not contingent on societal rules, laws, or conventions; and (3) justified by principles such as fairness, justice, welfare, or rights. However, Kahn (1999) did not ignore cultural context in the...

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