Shifting Cultures in Twenty-First-Century Italy and Beyond
Edited By Claudia Gualtieri
This collection of essays presents a study of migration cultures in the contemporary Mediterranean with a particular focus on Italy as a point of migratory convergence and pressure. It investigates different experiences of, and responses to, sea crossings, borders and checkpoints, cultural proximity and distance, race, ethnicity and memory, along with creative responses to the same. In dialogic and complementary interaction, the essays explore violence centring on race as the major determining factor. The book further submits that the interrogation of racialized categories represents different kinds of critical response and resistance, which involve both political struggle and day-to-day survival and coexistence. Following the praxis of cultural and postcolonial studies, the essays focus on the present but draw indispensable insight from past connections and heritage as well as offering prognoses for the future. The ambitious aim of this collection is to identify some useful lines of thought and action that could help us to think outside intricacy, isolation and defensiveness, which characterize most of the public official reactions to migration today.
1 Frontex and the production of the Euro-Mediterranean borderlands (2006–2016) (Giuseppe Campesi)
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1 Frontex and the production of the Euro-Mediterranean borderlands (2006–2016)1
The government of the Euro-Mediterranean border has produced what is seen as a new ‘geopolitics of inclusion’, through which Europe is trying to attract the neighbouring countries into its hegemonic orbit, involving them in the external governance of its justice and home affairs issues. This chapter analyses the role that Frontex has played in redefining the geopolitical imaginary of the European border, producing a conception of security whose classic inside/outside dichotomy has been gradually overcome. In 2005, the European agency Frontex was established in order to co-ordinate border-control actions among the nations of the European Union. It started as an extraordinary laboratory for the European Union in order to experiment with innovative politics for the control of human mobility, and to implement a new post-national model of border control and management. This chapter investigates how Frontex has impacted on the politics of migration in Europe, and what its functioning fundamentally means for the geopolitics of the European frontiers.
With 45,000km of coastline, 11,700km of land borders and 2,400 border crossing points managed by twenty-six different governments, the integrated EU border management is anything but simple. Each member state is traditionally accustomed to managing its borders according to definitions ← 39 | 40 → of risks and dangers based on an entirely national perspective, organizing border controls according to different strategic models...
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