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Re/Assembling the Pregnant and Parenting Teenager

Narratives from the Field(s)

Edited By Annelies Kamp and Majella McSharry

In 2003, Wendy Luttrell posed an important question: what might result if we were able to turn questions of judgement about pregnant and parenting teenagers into questions of interest about their sense of self and identity-making? This book takes up the challenge, offering a re/assemblage of what is, can be and perhaps should be known about teenage pregnancy and parenting in the context of the twenty-first century. The collection presents original contributions from leading commentators in four key contexts: the United States of America, the United Kingdom, Aotearoa New Zealand and the Republic of Ireland, all sites of elevated incidence of and/or concern around what is commonly articulated as the «problem» of teenage pregnancy and parenting. In offering a multi-disciplinary reading of the narratives of young men and women, this volume engages with the ambiguity shared by all of us in confronting the life transition that is pregnancy and parenting.

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Index

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Index

abortion 5, 69, 11, 13, 20, 22, 29, 42, 46, 77, 802, 127, 129, 13064, 161, 178, 1968

adoption 13, 29, 77, 128, 155, 156

adulthood 3, 9, 17, 77, 85, 88, 934, 228, 244, 270, 293

alarmist paradigm 7594

ambiguities 17, 144

antenatal classes 656, 130, 136

Aotearoa New Zealand 1, 8, 9, 18, 21, 278, 3546, 179, 243, 253, 269, 272, 278, 297

appearance 57, 151, 224

aspirations 14, 19, 36, 47, 878, 93, 118, 230, 2434, 246, 252, 255, 258, 2636, 274

assistance 93, 117, 154, 220, 2489, 282

assumptions 8892, 108, 123, 150, 176, 197, 270, 296

attendance 36, 38, 46, 162, 220, 254, 260

attitudes 14, 20, 59, 12732, 140, 1434, 1501, 162, 17483, 221, 228, 231, 257, 263, 280

belonging 34, 37, 111, 2223, 243, 253, 292

body, bodies 19, 33, 5169, 89, 1289, 151, 177, 179, 183, 22238, 250, 253, 294, 296

Bourdieu, P. 1213

breadwinning 107, 109, 110, 114, 116, 122, 21011, 271

breastfeeding 41, 658, 251, 295

capability 211

categorization 14950

Catholic, Catholicism 6, 30, 62, 64, 1279, 132, 137, 1413, 1516, 160, 1623, 1778, 292

causes 1415, 789, 91, 180, 220

challenges 5, 19, 21, 34, 512, 63, 85, 88, 93, 107, 109, 123, 195, 199, 21213, 247, 2545, 263, 26970, 27213, 285

changes 9, 16, 31, 51, 53, 59, 107, 113, 116, 119, 122, 147, 158, 1623, 201, 207, 226, 264, 271, 284, 286

childbearing 10, 13, 20, 46, 79, 80, 889, 902, 1056, 123, 1501, 162, 173, 175

childbirth 10, 30, 39, 153, 195, 298

childcare 35, 378, 401, 47, 88, 108, 158, 201, 220, 2489, 253, 257, 258

childhood 41, 57, 75, 80, 825, 878, 90, 934, 105, 2456, 24959, 274, 281

children 1, 3, 4, 15, 17, 18, 19, 278, 30, 36, 38, 403, 47, 57, 62, 656, 79, 83, 878, 106, 108, 11011, 11318, 1202, 128, 130, 137, 139, 149, 1548, 1634, 176, 1809, 197, 2013, 20514, 219, 228, 230, 24354, 25765, 26970, 2735, 27986, 291, 292, 294, 296

choice 2, 4, 9, 13, 22, 29, 55, 63, 812, 110, 114, 116, 1389, 140, 142, 144, 160, 183, 185, 188, 195, 1968, 21115, 2323, 238, 264

citizenship 21, 164, 219, 2213, 225, 227, 2289, 231, 2334, 2368, 297

complexity 2, 19, 38, 42, 107, 128, 134, 287

complications 6, 10, 287 ← 305 | 306 →

connectedness 53, 58, 132

consequences 5, 8, 1417, 78, 83, 91, 1056, 117, 119, 1223, 127, 227, 2301, 236

constitution 8, 128, 138, 152, 156, 159, 163

contextual factors 18

contraception 14, 41, 62, 149, 158, 162, 178, 180, 181, 18990, 196, 220, 236, 2856, 292

contraceptive(s) 123, 135, 1489, 1589, 1889, 220, 226, 236, 292

control 19, 52, 53, 567, 5960, 79, 80, 84, 89, 91, 108, 129, 140, 143, 150, 182, 184, 188, 196, 235, 257, 281, 286, 295

Correspondence School 21, 27, 31, 32, 46, 2468

cravings 59, 60

crisis pregnancy 20, 64, 12731, 133, 13843, 176, 189

cultural norms, cultural constructions 1, 2, 10, 15, 92, 109, 1212, 189, 204, 212

cultural practices 107, 163, 2523

curriculum 36, 37, 41, 2301, 232, 255

death 6, 10, 81, 1289, 153, 155, 1601, 180

decisions 2, 6, 7, 13, 1617, 201, 29, 31, 33, 402, 44, 51, 68, 114, 131, 1368, 141, 143, 195, 1978, 2013, 206, 2089, 21114, 232, 2335, 244, 292, 295, 298

Deleuze, G. 16, 56, 69, 2248, 2934

desire 28, 54, 1336, 13941, 180, 201, 203, 2089, 21113, 219, 2212, 2248, 2334, 236, 2745, 281, 2845, 2912, 294, 296

determination 136, 196, 222, 257, 277

development 3, 9, 10, 16, 21, 22, 67, 756, 89, 178, 221, 224, 234, 246, 255, 260, 281, 284, 295

deviance 91, 151

disadvantage 12, 15, 75, 78, 805, 878, 924, 173, 177, 188, 195, 271

discourse 15, 89, 1218, 20, 22, 278, 33, 35, 446, 60, 62, 66, 75, 107, 110, 11314, 116, 118, 122, 133, 137, 13941, 143, 150, 158, 163, 1967, 208, 21114, 224, 226, 238, 244, 2601, 264, 26970, 2727, 281, 283, 2857, 295, 297

dissatisfaction 589, 61

diversity 11, 16, 82, 7, 222, 2345, 237, 278

domestic labour 128, 152

downward spiral 75, 88, 93

driver(s) 190, 224, 227, 243, 2501

early school leaving 181, 254

education, educational 2, 9, 12, 15, 1718, 202, 278, 3141, 457, 63, 70, 77, 813, 867, 89, 913, 109, 111, 115, 118, 135, 139, 14751, 164, 1747, 1804, 1889, 195200, 2023, 209, 21214, 219, 2204, 227, 22938, 24453, 255, 2579, 2614, 266, 271, 274, 279, 2912, 2967

effects 15, 69, 7980, 89, 94, 157, 197, 2056, 211, 223, 226, 230, 236

embarrassment 65, 68, 180, 182

emotions 1, 132, 201, 302

employment 2, 9, 12, 15, 22, 43, 83, 86, 107, 112, 117, 1501, 153, 1578, 177, 197, 199, 200, 202, 21213, 229, 247, 253, 2713, 278, 297

engagement 10, 12, 15, 18, 356, 65, 69, 90, 133, 213, 224, 2301, 235, 2378, 244, 246

enrolment 32, 39, 41, 42, 62, 257

ethnicity 12, 14, 87, 1478, 179, 190, 199, 251, 260

exclusion 20, 148, 187, 197, 21923, 230, 244 ← 306 | 307 →

expectations 9, 19, 61, 78, 105, 107, 10910, 119, 123, 197, 199, 210, 211, 214, 220, 228, 2701, 280, 2856, 297

expert(s) 3, 13, 22, 139, 231, 292

factors 1314, 16, 1819, 678, 7980, 82, 84, 109, 111, 137, 149, 151, 196, 199, 211, 224, 244, 271, 279

familism, family 6, 7, 9, 13, 17, 19, 27, 29, 30, 32, 34, 40, 47, 52, 54, 65, 778, 80, 82, 85, 878, 94, 1056, 109, 11112, 11415, 11820, 123, 129, 1345, 1423, 14953, 155, 1578, 160, 1623, 173, 175, 1801, 1835, 1878, 190, 198, 2045, 208, 21014, 226, 236, 245, 248, 2526, 2612, 271, 2734, 2767, 27980, 2824, 2867

fatal foetal abnormality 133, 1389, 141, 162

fatherhood 12, 19, 212, 105, 1078, 110, 113, 11519, 1213, 136, 21012, 26972, 27568, 27987

feelings 29, 53, 132, 136, 2067, 21011, 258, 264

female sexuality 75, 129

feminist 13, 201, 44, 53, 63, 1736, 1879, 191, 224, 228, 247

fertility 2, 51, 83, 130, 148, 149, 153, 162, 180, 184, 219, 222, 235, 292, 294, 297

first generation studies 79, 80

Foucault, M. 24

framework(s) 1314, 223

friendship(s) 189, 259, 263

frustrations 203, 210

gifting 52, 56, 64, 66

‘ideal daughter’ 133, 144

identities 17, 53, 122, 151, 153, 223, 226, 2278, 237, 244, 251, 253, 258, 2601, 2634, 266, 2778, 281, 286, 304

ignorance 16, 197, 199, 220, 281

illegitimate 1534, 156

immaturity 14, 295

improvement 36, 132, 148, 2801, 286

incarceration 78, 83, 154, 156, 254, 284, 287

incidence 810, 756, 112, 147, 150, 158, 164, 174, 179, 199, 220

income 77, 78, 83, 86, 87, 92, 93, 111, 119, 120, 121, 122

indulgence 60, 276

inequalities 19, 90, 93, 1478, 150, 179

infanticide 129, 142

information 8, 11, 40, 556, 66, 108, 131, 134, 148, 153, 159, 161, 164, 1803, 188, 229, 2312, 234

intergenerational repair 22, 269, 2746, 278, 281, 283, 285

internet 148, 1812, 278

interventions 8990, 93, 158, 197, 220, 238

judgement 7, 16, 645, 232, 276, 27980

labelling 197, 295

legislation 8, 62, 131, 133, 140, 149, 1589, 1601

likelihood 21, 556, 82, 115

limited opportunities 78, 85

love 7, 17, 68, 1201, 142, 2067, 227, 258, 262, 271, 275, 2802, 284, 286, 292

male dominance 129

marriage 29, 62, 77, 108, 129, 131, 137, 138, 139, 148, 151, 154, 155, 156, 157, 184

masculinity 19, 21, 105, 110, 228, 271, 280, 2824, 286 ← 307 | 308 →

maturity 51, 64, 86, 186, 195, 211, 2701, 275

media 6, 1113, 15, 22, 568, 77, 79, 82, 1279, 131, 134, 138, 1434, 175, 183, 1867, 190, 209, 214, 226, 237, 243, 248, 251, 292, 295

medicalization 55, 60, 67

menstrual cycle(s) 129, 159

mental health outcomes 81

middle class 77, 79, 82, 8890, 93, 105, 110, 11419, 1212, 149, 163, 244

midwife 6, 20, 56, 127, 130, 1346, 1389, 142, 144

minority 140, 154, 1734, 177

miscarriage 6, 812, 159, 160

mistakes 11819, 271, 274

morality 3, 143, 174, 178, 184, 195

multiplicity 1, 47

needs 30, 346, 3842, 44, 467, 513, 60, 121, 161, 178, 190, 199, 201, 203, 2078, 212, 214, 221, 228, 232, 236, 248, 250, 2523, 256, 269, 282, 292, 297

neoliberal, neoliberalism 21, 28, 43, 51, 91, 1958, 209, 21314, 2447, 297

opportunities 21, 45, 69, 78, 85, 106, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122, 147, 164, 202, 209, 219, 222, 223, 2334, 238, 25960, 2623

panopticon 34, 55

paradigm shift 75, 901, 94

parent-student 18, 39, 42, 44

parental disappointment 1345, 139, 141

patriarchal society 20, 1289, 140, 15, 173, 1879

physical expansion, physical objects 51, 67

police 6, 129, 205

policy 13, 15, 18, 20, 27, 35, 426, 51, 623, 756, 106, 14750, 152, 154, 1567, 1634, 197, 199, 212, 21920, 223, 229, 231, 238, 243, 246, 250, 2923, 297

pornography 182, 237

poverty 14, 43, 756, 7980, 90, 112, 118, 121, 154, 15758, 197, 219, 221, 254, 271, 292

pressure 21, 38, 53, 56, 60, 121, 137, 187, 200, 2089, 233, 269, 274, 2789

procreation 152, 187, 236

programme(s) 19, 36, 8990, 93, 139, 196, 252, 292

race 12, 16, 51, 75, 77, 87, 107

rape 7

rationality 195, 197, 201

relationship(s) 9, 36, 40, 78, 867, 106, 134, 143, 176, 1823, 196, 198, 203, 2058, 21011, 21213, 220, 222, 228, 230, 2334, 237, 249, 252, 258, 2601, 264, 2745, 2768, 2834, 2867

repeat pregnancy 130

Republic of Ireland 1, 6, 81, 20, 62, 1278, 132, 140, 147, 173, 1778, 1856, 18990, 297

reputation 77, 181, 184

responsibility 19, 43, 53, 86, 88, 105, 108, 110, 113, 11518, 1201, 134, 1367, 150, 190, 1958, 2013, 209, 211, 214, 222, 229, 230, 2326, 269, 270, 2734, 276, 2812, 283, 2856, 297

risk 4, 7, 1314, 1617, 21, 44, 55, 656, 94, 108, 133, 138, 141, 1601, 1756, 184, 196, 1989, 209, 21920, 2334, 248, 271, 276, 295, 297

role 14, 15, 18, 20, 77, 87, 107, 10910, 116, 128, 130, 134, 1423, 149, 152, 163, ← 308 | 309 → 173, 175, 177, 1824, 1868, 190, 196, 202, 204, 20710, 21214, 223, 231, 233, 244, 2712, 282, 286, 2923, 298

ruination 9, 11

safe sex 189, 232, 2356

salvation 11, 30

school uniform 29, 42, 63

scientific paradigm 87

second generation studies 79

sex education 21, 135, 1746, 1804, 1889, 1967, 220, 233

sexual activity 16, 64, 77, 130, 152, 181, 184, 196, 221, 226

sexuality 2, 23, 18, 20, 624, 75, 129, 140, 143, 178, 180, 222, 2248, 230, 231, 234, 2368

sexually transmitted infections (STI) 180

shame, shameful 68, 133, 136, 151, 173, 175, 181, 182, 184, 190, 219

skills 41, 89, 94, 186, 189, 221, 232, 235, 237, 2456, 271, 274

social class 19, 105, 108, 11011, 11314, 123, 147, 164

social construction 107, 147, 149, 151, 163, 2234, 272

spectacular 12, 133, 139, 296, 298

statistical approach 812

stereotypes 13, 21, 82, 88, 109, 120, 131, 176, 187, 198, 21213, 26970, 272, 277, 281, 285

stigma, stigmatization 4, 1314, 1920, 22, 43, 64, 867, 105, 110, 1289, 133, 1367, 13940, 142, 144, 148, 151, 156, 1634, 1967, 279, 280

strengths 756, 82, 85, 90, 923, 250, 252

student-parent 21, 27, 38, 47

sudden infant death syndrome 180

suicide, suicidal 7, 1601, 200, 256

support 2, 17, 1316, 1819, 27, 30, 3542, 445, 65, 667, 889, 109, 112, 11415, 117, 1212, 1278, 135, 137, 142, 150, 152, 156, 158, 161, 174, 182, 189, 197, 99, 213, 221, 230, 234, 2378, 243, 2468, 2501, 253, 2559, 261, 263, 266, 269, 274, 27980, 282, 2867, 292

taboo 140, 176, 180

teenage parents units (TPU) 27, 3536, 389, 401, 457

television 20, 127, 1314, 138, 1414, 153, 1812, 187, 209, 245, 304

tensions 9, 18, 46, 612, 656, 140, 228, 279

third generation studies 75, 801, 82, 84, 89

transformation 589, 689, 106, 263, 2756, 2778, 280, 283, 298

Travellers 17390

trends 11, 34, 178, 179

United Kingdom 1, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 20, 21, 84, 132, 137, 140, 141, 187, 189, 297, 298

United States of America 1, 8, 297

violence 34, 83, 86, 183, 184, 203, 2046, 225, 254

welfare 13, 14, 16, 424, 55, 789, 84, 88, 934, 106, 152, 1568, 163, 197, 213, 221, 233, 252, 276, 297

wellbeing 27, 40, 41, 204, 209, 247

working class 105, 110, 11619, 122