An important question concerning literary studies is the circulation of literary works beyond their place of origin. Many other aspects must also be taken into consideration, such as the asymmetric positioning of authors and their work in international circulation, which is conditioned by the relative position of languages and cultures in the global market. This volume focuses on literary and cultural circulation and includes essays that explore this topic through case studies, analysing works and authors from diverse literatures and cultures, and discussions of the theoretical issues surrounding circulation and all that it entails: temporality, place, method, material objects and concepts.
14 The Brazilian Encyclopaedia, Language Policy and the Circulation of Ideas about the Democratization of Culture: Mário de Andrade (1939) and Eurialo Canabrava (1957) (Bethania Mariani)
Bethania Mariani 14 The Brazilian Encyclopaedia, Language Policy and the Circulation of Ideas about the Democratization of Culture: Mário de Andrade (1939) and Eurialo Canabrava (1957) There were two major projects to create a Brazilian encyclopaedia in the twentieth-century history of Brazil: one was implemented in 1939 by Mário de Andrade, and the other in 1957 by E. Canabrava, who put forward a simi- lar project within the framework of the National Book Institute (Instituto Nacional do Livro). The aim of this chapter is to consider how linguistic issues are dealt with bearing in mind such different production contexts. I will draw on the theoretical perspective of discourse analysis and the history of linguistic ideas, two intellectual fields that are interrelated in discussions about the formation of a national language in its relation- ship to the nation-state. From the perspective of discourse analysis (DA), language is not trans- parent, nor is it a vehicle (or tool) for communicating information. On the contrary, language is opaque and the site of misunderstandings and slippages within processes of producing meaning. DA contends that the place an individual speaks from constitutes what is said, and is represented by images in society as a whole. When we speak we enter into processes of producing meaning that predate us, constituting networks of differences, memories and things we have forgotten. To put it succinctly, from the perspective of DA to speak is to enter into networks of power that oper- ate within processes of producing...
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