History and Geography
Second millennium BC: The formation of Assyria (in the north of Mesopotamia) with the foundation of a powerful kingdom, which later became an empire. In the seventh and eighth centuries BC Assyria controls an area covering the whole or part of several modern countries, namely, Iraq, Syria, Iran, Lebanon, and Turkey. The Assyrian Empire was succeeded by the Neo-Babylonian Empire (626–539 BC) and by the Achaemenian Persian Empire (c. 559–330 BC), which was conquered by Alexander the Great in 330 BC and which was succeeded in turn by the Greek Seleucids (311–64 BC)
247 BC–224 AD: The Parthian Persian Empire
c. 135–130 BC to 216 AD: The small independent kingdom of Osrhoene with its capital at Edessa, where the language spoken was Syriac
27 BC: Beginning of the Roman Empire
First century AD: The foundation of Christianity with the first Christian communities arising in the regions between Antioch, Jerusalem, Alexandria and Rome
c. 52 AD: The Apostle Thomas (d. c. 68) arrives in India and founds churches
224–637: The Sasanian Persian Empire with its capital at Ctesiphon, also the place of the first episcopal see of the Church of the East
309–79: In Persia, the reign of Shapur II and persecutions of the Christians
313: The Edict of Milan promulgated by the emperor Constantine (306–37) officially recognizes the Christian religion in the Roman Empire...
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