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Médecine et santé dans les campagnes

Approches historiques et enjeux contemporains

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Edited By Patrick Fournier, Claude Grimmer and Marie Bolton

Les territoires ruraux font l’objet de préoccupations spécifiques en matière de santé : souvent considérés comme des « déserts médicaux », ils attirent de plus en plus l’attention des pouvoirs publics. La réalité est complexe et diversifiée en fonction de multiples paramètres. L’objet de cet ouvrage collectif est de comprendre les processus historiques qui ont contribué à façonner les relations entre les populations des campagnes, les soignants et les autorités de toutes natures. Différents éclairages permettent de comprendre les évolutions survenues depuis la Renaissance. À partir d’exemples principalement français et européens, mais aussi d’études de territoires colonisés et dominés, les auteurs s’interrogent sur les formes de la médicalisation à l’œuvre dans les campagnes : présence de médecins et d’autres personnels de soins, création de structures spécifiques, relations sanitaires entre villes et campagnes, apports des campagnes au savoir médical... En définitive, c’est la notion de territoire rural de santé qui est questionnée. Des ouvertures sur la situation contemporaine permettent de réfléchir à la pérennité des héritages et à l’ampleur des (r)évolutions en cours.

 

 

The countryside presents specific issues to consider when studying health care. Often termed "medical deserts," rural areas have increasingly become a focus of concern for public administrators. Multiple parameters demonstrate its complex and diversified reality. This collection seeks to understand the historical processes that have contributed to the development of relationships between rural populations, health care providers, and various authorities. A variety of perspectives illuminate the diverse changes that have occurred since the Renaissance. Through an examination of primarily French and European but also colonial examples, the authors investigate various forms of medicalization at work in rural areas: the presence of doctors and other health care providers, creation of specific health care structures, relationships between rural and urban areas in terms of health issues, contributions by country dwellers to medical knowledge, and so forth. The very notion of health care as specific to the countryside is questioned. The status of rural medicine and health care in present times is also addressed to reflect both on continuities with the past and the scope of changes to come.

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Barren Lands and Barren Bodies in Navajo Nation: Indian Women WARN about Uranium, Genetics, and Sterilization (Marie Bolton / Nancy C. Unger)

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Barren Lands and Barren Bodies in Navajo Nation: Indian Women WARN about Uranium, Genetics, and Sterilization

Marie Bolton

Université Clermont-Auvergne

Centre d’Histoire Espaces et Cultures (CHEC, EA 1001)

and

Nancy C. Unger

Santa Clara University, Department of History

Abstract: Founded by Native American women in 1974, Women of All Red Nations (WARN) insisted that the ongoing Indian public health crisis could not be properly understood exclusively within the context of the exploitation and pollution of the physical environment. It required as well an understanding of the larger context of Indian health issues evolving out of past and present cultural and political changes. This article focuses on selected health threats affecting the Diné, or “the People,” as Navajo Indians call themselves, living in Diné Bikéyah (Navajo Nation) during the mid to late 20th century. Navajo history is marked by a series of catastrophes befalling the health of its people and lands, and reactions by both the Diné and the federal government. The 20th century Navajo story combines the concurrent tragedies of forced Indian sterilizations with the calamitous health consequences of uranium exploitation that continue into the 21st century. This context must not be ignored when assessing the difficulties involved in establishing a trusting relationship between the Navajo people and outside researchers and health care providers.

Résumé : Fondé par des Américaines autochtones en 1974, l’association WARN (Women of All Red Nations) a insist...

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