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Critical Dictionary on Borders, Cross-Border Cooperation and European Integration

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Edited By Birte Wassenberg and Bernard Reitel

This Critical Dictionary on Borders, Cross-Border Cooperation and European Integration is the first encyclopaedia which combines two so far not well interconnected interdisciplinary research fields, i.e. Border Studies and European Studies. Organised in an alphabetical order, it contains 207 articles written by 115 authors from different countries and scientific disciplines which are accompanied by 58 maps. The articles deal with theory, terminology, concepts, actors, themes and spaces of neighbourhood relations at European borders and in borderlands of and around the European Union (EU). Taking into account a multi-scale perspective from the local to the global, the Critical Dictionary follows a combined historical-geographical approach and is co-directed by Birte Wassenberg and Bernard Reitel, with a large contribution of Jean Peyrony and Jean Rubio from the Mission opérationnelle transfrontalère (MOT), especially for the cartography. The Dictionary is also part of four Jean Monnet activities supported by the Erasmus+ programme of the European Union for the period 2016-2022: two Jean Monnet projects on EU border regions (University Strasbourg), one Jean Monnet network (Frontem) and the Franco-German Jean Monnet excellence Center in Strasbourg, as well as the Jean Monnet Chair of Bernard Reitel on borders and European integration. Rather than being designed as an objective compilation of facts and figures, it should serve as a critical tool for discussion between researchers, students and practitioners working in the field of borders, cross-border cooperation and European Integration.

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Hungary

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Hungary joined the European Union (EU) in 2004, and formed part of the second wave of enlargement following the fall of the Berlin Wall (together with most of the other eastern European States). Hungary covers an area of 93 030 km2 and its territory is crossed by the two rivers Danube and Tisza. It shares borders with Austria (366 km) to the west, Serbia (151 km), Croatia (329 km) and Slovenia (102 km) to the southwest, Romania (448 km) to the southeast, Ukraine (103 km) to the north-east and Slovakia (677 km) to the north. The border between Austria and Hungary acquired particular importance at the end of the Cold War as this was the route via which inhabitants of the German ←527 | 528→Democratic Republic fled in the region of Sopron. It was therefore the first “filter border” along the Iron Curtain.

The Kingdom of Hungary was founded by the Magyars in 1001 and later fought over by the Habsburgs and the Ottomans. Following the Battle of Mohács, the Ottomans occupied Hungary from 1526 to 1686, when the Habsburgs liberated the country and brought it under Austrian dominion. The 1848 anti-Habsburg uprisings were quashed and, but in 1867, the Hungarians obtained a large autonomy by the way in which the two kingdoms were united under the dual Austro-Hungarian monarchy. However, the Empire collapsed at the end of World War I, it was dissolved in 1918 and then replaced by seven states (Austria,...

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