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Critical Dictionary on Borders, Cross-Border Cooperation and European Integration


Edited By Birte Wassenberg and Bernard Reitel

This Critical Dictionary on Borders, Cross-Border Cooperation and European Integration is the first encyclopaedia which combines two so far not well interconnected interdisciplinary research fields, i.e. Border Studies and European Studies. Organised in an alphabetical order, it contains 207 articles written by 115 authors from different countries and scientific disciplines which are accompanied by 58 maps. The articles deal with theory, terminology, concepts, actors, themes and spaces of neighbourhood relations at European borders and in borderlands of and around the European Union (EU). Taking into account a multi-scale perspective from the local to the global, the Critical Dictionary follows a combined historical-geographical approach and is co-directed by Birte Wassenberg and Bernard Reitel, with a large contribution of Jean Peyrony and Jean Rubio from the Mission opérationnelle transfrontalère (MOT), especially for the cartography. The Dictionary is also part of four Jean Monnet activities supported by the Erasmus+ programme of the European Union for the period 2016-2022: two Jean Monnet projects on EU border regions (University Strasbourg), one Jean Monnet network (Frontem) and the Franco-German Jean Monnet excellence Center in Strasbourg, as well as the Jean Monnet Chair of Bernard Reitel on borders and European integration. Rather than being designed as an objective compilation of facts and figures, it should serve as a critical tool for discussion between researchers, students and practitioners working in the field of borders, cross-border cooperation and European Integration.

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Irish Border Region


The island of Ireland is situated on the western periphery of Europe, which prior to the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1922, was an integral part of the United Kingdom (UK). After many years of social and political unrest, the Government of Ireland Act 1920 partitioned the island. The War of Independence (1919–1921) concluded with the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1922, creating the Irish Free State; the six northern counties remained in the UK. After a bitter civil war (1922–1923) between anti-Treaty Republicans and pro-Treaty Free State forces the Free State remained a Dominion within the Commonwealth until 1937. The Republic of Ireland Act 1949 severed the last links to the Commonwealth. ←558 | 559→The intertwined legacies of Partition and the Civil War defined and poisoned Irish politics and society for almost a century. Until recent decades, an extremely conservative Catholic Church dominated social and political life in the south. In the north, political control remained firmly in the hands of (mainly Protestant) supporters of the union with Britain and the monarchy; the Catholic minority was largely excluded from access to social services, employment, housing (and therefore the right to vote).

The late 1960s saw the emergence of the civil rights movement in Northern Ireland. In 1969, the repression of the civil rights movement led to a resurgent armed Republican campaign against the British state which was met by an escalation in the British military response. In the half century since the start of the...

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