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Critical Dictionary on Borders, Cross-Border Cooperation and European Integration


Edited By Birte Wassenberg and Bernard Reitel

This Critical Dictionary on Borders, Cross-Border Cooperation and European Integration is the first encyclopaedia which combines two so far not well interconnected interdisciplinary research fields, i.e. Border Studies and European Studies. Organised in an alphabetical order, it contains 207 articles written by 115 authors from different countries and scientific disciplines which are accompanied by 58 maps. The articles deal with theory, terminology, concepts, actors, themes and spaces of neighbourhood relations at European borders and in borderlands of and around the European Union (EU). Taking into account a multi-scale perspective from the local to the global, the Critical Dictionary follows a combined historical-geographical approach and is co-directed by Birte Wassenberg and Bernard Reitel, with a large contribution of Jean Peyrony and Jean Rubio from the Mission opérationnelle transfrontalère (MOT), especially for the cartography. The Dictionary is also part of four Jean Monnet activities supported by the Erasmus+ programme of the European Union for the period 2016-2022: two Jean Monnet projects on EU border regions (University Strasbourg), one Jean Monnet network (Frontem) and the Franco-German Jean Monnet excellence Center in Strasbourg, as well as the Jean Monnet Chair of Bernard Reitel on borders and European integration. Rather than being designed as an objective compilation of facts and figures, it should serve as a critical tool for discussion between researchers, students and practitioners working in the field of borders, cross-border cooperation and European Integration.

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Øresund/Greater Copenhagen Region



The Øresund Region, renamed Greater Copenhagen and Scania Region in 2016, is centred around the Øresund strait and the cities of Copenhagen in Denmark and Malmö in Sweden. This cross-border metropolitan region has 4.3 million inhabitants and comprises the Capital Region of Denmark (Hovedstaden) and the Region Zealand on the Danish side and Skåne and Halland on the Swedish side.

The Øre (or Öresund) has been a heavily trafficked sound since medieval times. Its northern entrance is marked by the sister cities of Helsingør and Hälsingborg and its southern entrance by Copenhagen and Malmö. Denmark levied a toll on all ships passing the sound from 1429 until 1855 as a major contribution to the king’s personal budget. The sound became Denmark’s border to Sweden when Denmark had to cede Scania and Blekinge to Sweden with the Treaty of Roskilde of 1658. In the 19th century, Danish-Swedish rivalry for dominance in the Baltic Sea Region was replaced by a popular pan-Scandinavian movement promoting Scandinavian unity and voicing the idea of the Nordic “brethren people”. Closer Nordic political and cultural cooperation in the 1950s have resulted in a cross-border labour market, free access to higher education, and a travel zone without regular passport control.

Metropolitan cooperation was formalized with the establishment of the Øresund Committee in 1993, just before Sweden joined the European Union (EU) in 1995. Cross-border integration was boosted by the opening of the fixed link in 2000, which made fast...

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