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Critical Dictionary on Borders, Cross-Border Cooperation and European Integration

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Edited By Birte Wassenberg and Bernard Reitel

This Critical Dictionary on Borders, Cross-Border Cooperation and European Integration is the first encyclopaedia which combines two so far not well interconnected interdisciplinary research fields, i.e. Border Studies and European Studies. Organised in an alphabetical order, it contains 207 articles written by 115 authors from different countries and scientific disciplines which are accompanied by 58 maps. The articles deal with theory, terminology, concepts, actors, themes and spaces of neighbourhood relations at European borders and in borderlands of and around the European Union (EU). Taking into account a multi-scale perspective from the local to the global, the Critical Dictionary follows a combined historical-geographical approach and is co-directed by Birte Wassenberg and Bernard Reitel, with a large contribution of Jean Peyrony and Jean Rubio from the Mission opérationnelle transfrontalère (MOT), especially for the cartography. The Dictionary is also part of four Jean Monnet activities supported by the Erasmus+ programme of the European Union for the period 2016-2022: two Jean Monnet projects on EU border regions (University Strasbourg), one Jean Monnet network (Frontem) and the Franco-German Jean Monnet excellence Center in Strasbourg, as well as the Jean Monnet Chair of Bernard Reitel on borders and European integration. Rather than being designed as an objective compilation of facts and figures, it should serve as a critical tool for discussion between researchers, students and practitioners working in the field of borders, cross-border cooperation and European Integration.

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Tourism

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Tourism is the sum of all travel away from home for more than 24 hours and less than one year, motivated by any purpose (e.g. leisure, business, education, health, shopping, religious pilgrimage, or visiting friends and relatives). It includes all services and attractions that facilitate travel at the tourist’s place of origin (e.g. shops, travel agencies, passport agencies), in transit (e.g., petrol stations, airports), and within the destination (e.g., tour companies, hotels, restaurants, car rentals). It entails people traveling within their own countries (domestic tourism) and crossing international borders (international tourism). Tourism is a global phenomenon that involves a wide range of sectors, such as lodging, transportation, and food services, and other industries, including agriculture, construction, petroleum, and fishing and has significant impacts on the social, ecological and economic environments. These impacts include, among others, cultural misappropriation, discontent among destination residents, economic leakage, and physical wear and tear. Tourism also involves many different stakeholders in the public, private and non-profit sectors.

As a result, tourism scholars have long argued for the need to collaborate across borders, because collaboration can help uphold the principles of sustainable development and provide more equitable relationships between border communities. Transboundary cooperation in tourism aims to address mutual issues on both sides of a border and includes different scales, including global, regional, binational, and inter-local ones. Each of these cooperation scales has its own purposes. At the global level, cooperation usually takes place in areas such as data collection and policy consultations....

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