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Critical Dictionary on Borders, Cross-Border Cooperation and European Integration

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Edited By Birte Wassenberg and Bernard Reitel

This Critical Dictionary on Borders, Cross-Border Cooperation and European Integration is the first encyclopaedia which combines two so far not well interconnected interdisciplinary research fields, i.e. Border Studies and European Studies. Organised in an alphabetical order, it contains 207 articles written by 115 authors from different countries and scientific disciplines which are accompanied by 58 maps. The articles deal with theory, terminology, concepts, actors, themes and spaces of neighbourhood relations at European borders and in borderlands of and around the European Union (EU). Taking into account a multi-scale perspective from the local to the global, the Critical Dictionary follows a combined historical-geographical approach and is co-directed by Birte Wassenberg and Bernard Reitel, with a large contribution of Jean Peyrony and Jean Rubio from the Mission opérationnelle transfrontalère (MOT), especially for the cartography. The Dictionary is also part of four Jean Monnet activities supported by the Erasmus+ programme of the European Union for the period 2016-2022: two Jean Monnet projects on EU border regions (University Strasbourg), one Jean Monnet network (Frontem) and the Franco-German Jean Monnet excellence Center in Strasbourg, as well as the Jean Monnet Chair of Bernard Reitel on borders and European integration. Rather than being designed as an objective compilation of facts and figures, it should serve as a critical tool for discussion between researchers, students and practitioners working in the field of borders, cross-border cooperation and European Integration.

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Cyprus

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Cyprus has a population of 1.2 million and covers an area of just over 9 000 km2. Cyprus is an island and lies close to Turkey and to the Middle-East (the distance with the coast of Lebanon is less than 300 km), and has therefore a peripheral location in the European Union (EU). Greek and Turkish are both the official languages of the country, which is still divided into two parts, the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus which is only recognized by the government of Turkey and covers 35 % of the total area and the Republic of Cyprus, which is member of the EU. The population of this latter is approximately 880 000.

Cyprus is a former possession of the Ottoman Empire that was occupied and then annexed by the United Kingdom in 1914. When ←280 | 281→the island gained its independence in 1960, the Greek inhabitants of Cyprus were keen to become part of Greece. Greeks were in the majority on the island, which also had a large Turkish minority (approximately 20 % of the population). The Turkish army occupied the island in 1974 in response to a rebellion that aimed at replacing President Makarios, who was in favour of independence, with a leader proposing union with Greece. The outcome was the partitioning of the island with the creation of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus in the northern part of the island. The capital, Nicosia, was then divided in two, which...

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