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Critical Dictionary on Borders, Cross-Border Cooperation and European Integration

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Edited By Birte Wassenberg and Bernard Reitel

This Critical Dictionary on Borders, Cross-Border Cooperation and European Integration is the first encyclopaedia which combines two so far not well interconnected interdisciplinary research fields, i.e. Border Studies and European Studies. Organised in an alphabetical order, it contains 207 articles written by 115 authors from different countries and scientific disciplines which are accompanied by 58 maps. The articles deal with theory, terminology, concepts, actors, themes and spaces of neighbourhood relations at European borders and in borderlands of and around the European Union (EU). Taking into account a multi-scale perspective from the local to the global, the Critical Dictionary follows a combined historical-geographical approach and is co-directed by Birte Wassenberg and Bernard Reitel, with a large contribution of Jean Peyrony and Jean Rubio from the Mission opérationnelle transfrontalère (MOT), especially for the cartography. The Dictionary is also part of four Jean Monnet activities supported by the Erasmus+ programme of the European Union for the period 2016-2022: two Jean Monnet projects on EU border regions (University Strasbourg), one Jean Monnet network (Frontem) and the Franco-German Jean Monnet excellence Center in Strasbourg, as well as the Jean Monnet Chair of Bernard Reitel on borders and European integration. Rather than being designed as an objective compilation of facts and figures, it should serve as a critical tool for discussion between researchers, students and practitioners working in the field of borders, cross-border cooperation and European Integration.

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Denmark

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Denmark is a small country (43 000 km2), which is densely populated by Scandinavian standards (130 inhabitants/km2). The state and the nation themselves have an old history; however, the territory has been subject to major changes and only took its current form post-1864. Two autonomous territories are attached to Denmark: Greenland and the Faroe Islands, both of which are Overseas Countries and Territories (OCTs) and not part of the European Union (EU). Denmark comprises a peninsula (Jutland), attached to the continent by a 70 km-long isthmus and over 400 islands, the largest of which (Zealand) includes the capital, Copenhagen. The geographical configuration (a mainland and a ←293 | 294→multitude of islands) causes problems in terms of territorial continuity, some of which have been resolved by the state by investing in bridges and tunnels for both road and rail traffic. Over one-third of the country’s population lives in the agglomeration of Copenhagen, which lies on Denmark’s eastern seaboard close to Sweden, from which it is separated by the Øresund, a strait linking the Baltic Sea to the North Sea. As one of the cities commanding the strait, Copenhagen is both a coastal and a border city, due to its proximity to the Swedish coast about 10 km away. For the record, Denmark has obtained four opt-outs from the EU, the most notable being its non-participation in the European Monetary Union (EMU): hence, the kronet remains the currency of the country.

Denmark has two types of...

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