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Les langues de la médecine

Analyse comparative interlingue

Edited By Pascaline Faure

Stent, bypass, screening… : depuis la fin de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, l’anglais règne en maître sur la langue médicale. Pourtant, cela n’a pas toujours été le cas. Par exemple, nous devons à l’allemand nombre de mots relatifs aux maladies infectieuses. Le français, quant à lui, a fortement influencé le vocabulaire de l’obstétrique et de la cardiologie.
Mais quel est l’état de santé de toutes ces langues médicales aujourd’hui ? Comment le français se bat-il pour sa survie ? De quoi souffre l’espagnol ? Que fait le portugais du Brésil pour se porter comme un charme ? Quels remèdes l’italien a-t-il appliqués ? L’allemand est-il réellement moribond ?
Cet ouvrage propose une radiographie complète des principales langues médicales actuelles. Six auteurs retracent leur histoire depuis leur origine gréco-latine commune, et les examinent en regard de l’anglicisation dont elles souffrent toutes à des degrés divers.

Stent, bypass, screening… Since the end of World War II, English has reigned supreme over the language of medicine. But this has not always been the case. For example, many words relating to infectious diseases come from German. French, for its part, has also strongly influenced the vocabulary of obstetrics and cardiology.
What is the state of health of all these medical languages today? How is French fighting for its survival? What does Spanish suffer from? What does Brazilian Portuguese do to thrive? What remedies has Italian prescribed? Is German really moribund?
This book offers a thorough analysis of the main medical languages of today. Six authors trace their history from their common Greco-Latin origin and examine them in relation to the anglicization from which they all suffer to various degrees.

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MEDICAL PORTUGUESE: (Ana Julia Perrotti-Garcia)

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Résumé Le présent article présente la terminologie médicale en portugais du Brésil, tels que les préfixes et les suffixes ; les abréviations et les acronymes ; les anthroponymes ; les emprunts linguistiques ; la phraséologie et les collocations. Il souligne également certains des problèmes liés à l’évolution future du langage médical en portugais brésilien.

Mots-clés:  Portugais brésilien médical, racines gréco-latines, abréviations, emprunts, anthroponymes

Abstract This article examines the medical terminology in the Brazilian variant of Portuguese, including prefixes and suffixes; abbreviations and acronyms; anthroponyms; loanwords; phraseology and collocations. It also tackles some of the issues related to the future development of the medical language in Brazilian Portuguese.

Keywords:  Medical Brazilian Portuguese, Greek and Latin roots, abbreviations, loanwords, anthroponyms

Originally from the Iberian Peninsula, the Portuguese language is a result of the development of Vulgar Latin that had been taken to what is now Portugal by Roman colonists in the 3rd century BCE, with a smaller influence from other languages and bringing a significant Celtic substrate.

Currently, Portuguese is the official language spoken in nine countries on four continents: Portugal (Europe), Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea Bissau, Mozambique, and St Tomé and Príncipe (Africa), Timor-Leste (Asia), and Brazil (South America). Over 250 million people throughout the world speak Portuguese, and Brazil accounts for some 80 % of this total. Portuguese is the fifth most commonly spoken language in...

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