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Vocational Education beyond Skill Formation

VET between Civic, Industrial and Market Tensions


Edited By Fernando Marhuenda-Fluixá

Vocational education and training has played an important role in the struggles between Work and Capital along history and today; there are examples of such tensions worldwide. The first section of this book provides illustrations of different countries from the 18th to the early 20th century. The authors explain and exemplify the education of the workforce and its political engagement, contributing to the formation of the working class. The chapters provide relevant approaches to how young apprentices and adult workers developed a class consciousness through vocational education. The second section illustrates practices of resistance and transformation within policies and practices of vocational education nowadays in Central and Southern Europe and South America, addressing the needs of people with disabilities and dispossessed populations. The final section analyses how theories and policies intertwine resulting in the idiosyncrasy of vocational education practices across the world, through tensions between logics and institutional actors. The book addresses the political dimensions of Vocational Education and problematizes its mere consideration as an instrumental tool in skill formation.

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The Twin Aspiration of Danish Craftsmen to Maintain their Traditional Privileges and Be Accepted as Respectable Members of the Emerging Bourgeois Society (Ida Juul)


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The Twin Aspiration of Danish Craftsmen to Maintain their Traditional Privileges and Be Accepted as Respectable Members of the Emerging Bourgeois Society

1.  Introduction

The period from the mid-18th century to the passing of the Danish apprenticeship law in 1889 was a period of great turbulence and dramatic social change. The late 18th century was characterized by agricultural reforms and the rise of a new self-assertive class of farmers who began to make their voices heard politically. At the same time, the number of smallholders and the proportion of unpropertied people grew. An urban bourgeoisie inspired by the ideas of the enlightenment increasingly challenged the absolutistic state and its power base, the rural nobility. This urban bourgeoisie, consisting of the bureaucrats of the absolute state, intellectuals and industrialists, mainly located in the capital, began to organize in clubs and patriotic societies (Engelhardt 2010, p. 79; Clemmensen 1987, p. 34). This led to an institutionalization of public opinion which the absolute state was unable to ignore and, in the end, to the peaceful transition from absolutism to a constitutional monarchy based on the principles of a division of power, as advocated by Montesquieu, and the introduction of civic rights. Neither the agricultural reforms, the ideas of the enlightenment nor the clubs and the patriotic societies were of Danish origin (Habermas 1962, Juul 2013, pp. 60–61). They were products of ideas generated in other European societies, transplanted and transformed...

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