Black Footballers and Coaches Between White Lines: A Multi-Level Analysis of Racism and Anti-Racism CSR Movements in Belgian Football (Chris Heim, Joris Courthouts and Jeroen Scheerder)
Black Footballers and Coaches Between White Lines: A Multi-Level Analysis of Racism and Anti-Racism CSR Movements in Belgian Football
Chris HEIM, Joris COURTHOUTS and Jeroen SCHEERDER
Intermittently throughout the second half the 20th century, the country of Belgium faced various waves of migration, which significantly altered its socio-demographic make-up (Reniers 1999; Lucassen and Laarman 2009; Demart 2013). Today, in parallel with the substantial inflow of migrants and refugees, Belgium like many other European countries, is undergoing a cultural transformation. This development and other circumstances linked to its unique population composition, have made Belgium a country that is confronted with the challenges consequent of the rapid growth of multicultural societies. These challenges are connected to the question of how a diverse range of racial and ethnic backgrounds can effectively and respectively communicate to one another in harmony (de Witte and Verbeek 2000).
Although tensions between racial and ethnic groups, particularly between natives and ethnic minorities, have occasionally disrupted solidarity and social cohesion in certain Belgian communities, studies have shown that Belgian society has adapted quite effectively to social and cultural changes. Additionally, within this societal evolution, the level of racism has not been rising, and has possibly decreased (Billet and de Witte 2008). While discrimination has been relatively stabilized, there are still negative reciprocal perceptions, that many natives believe immigrants and their descendants do not want to really belong to and integrate in Belgian society, and from the migrants’ side that there is still a...
You are not authenticated to view the full text of this chapter or article.
This site requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books or journals.
Do you have any questions? Contact us.Or login to access all content.