De l’approche comparative à l’analyse des situations interculturelles
III. Comparaison des rituels et routines dans les échanges ordinaires 179
179 III. Comparaison des rituels et routines dans les échanges ordinaires Rituals and routines from a comparative and cross-cultural point of view (Summary) The first part of this chapter starts with a discussion on the terms ‘rituals’ (Goffman 1974) and ‘routines’ (Coulmas 1981) in order to clearly delineate the two concepts. The former is shown to be linked more closely to the symbolic dimension of language and face-work while the latter concentrates on the recurring and stereotypical characteristics of certain exchanges. Each term therefore refers to a particular type of focus on the part of the analyst since these two dimensions of language are often found in the same con- text – although some situations may be more clearly labelled as eliciting a ‘ritual’ or a ‘routine’. A third concept is introduced, that of ‘extended conversational routine’ (rou- tine conversationnelle élaborée) which has been coined especially for the cross- cultural analysis of a particular type of situation (see below). This notion makes a dis- tinction between short and predictable ‘rituals’ and ‘routines’ on the one hand, and longer, more involved kinds of exchanges which imply greater personal input on the part of the speaker, like small-talk or asking for information over the counter. This distinction is important from a cross-cultural point of view because, while short rituals and routines can be memorised relatively easily by L2 learners, extended conversational routines typically involve extra-linguistic knowledge of participants’ expectations in that particular type of exchange (in terms of roles and attitudes to...
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