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Orphans of the One or the Deception of the Immanence

Essays on the Roots of Secularization


Alba Papa-Grimaldi

Through a collection of essays in metaphysics, epistemology and ethics, this book explores the evolution of the idea of the One and Many.
Since Parmenides’ dichotomy of One and Many, the One of the ancient cosmogonies has been reduced to a pole of our thought, a sterile identity which has been identified with truth but cannot bring forth nor give order to the Many. The author reflects on how the Parmenidean dichotomy has led, for many centuries after Parmenides, to the metaphysical attempts to reduce the Many to the One, causing unsolvable epistemological problems, and to the metaphysical dissolution of the One in the Many of time, causing the moral crisis of the West. Further, this study analyses the epistemic and spiritual impasse of the West and shows a possible solution to this problem: to unearth the forgotten dichotomy, the key to understand millenarian philosophical problems, such as consciousness, movement and causality, which are deadlocked because they all stem from the reduction of temporal phenomena within the framework of a rational thought which is unable to account for the non-identical.


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Essay V: A Phenomenal Theory of Causality 133


133 Essay V: A Phenomenal Theory of Causality Introduction In this article I will argue that the problem of causality arises in modern times in a logico-reductivistic framework which is incom- mensurable with the dimension of temporal relations. I will show further that Kant’s attack on Hume’s reductivistic treatment of causality, carried out in the Second Analogy, in which we can find fundamental insights in the phenomenal nature of causal relations, does not exploit fully the phenomenal status of causality, but falls back on the same logico-reductivistic framework with his ideas of ‘simultaneous causation’ and ‘vanishing quantities’. The affirmation of the Cogito, by Descartes, as the only truth, and so of the identity as the highest and ultimately only standard of truth had not been without consequences in the subsequent development of Western thought. The Cogito and the intellectual revolution that it conveyed opened the way to a critique of those principles of reason traditionally considered as self-evident. These, because they did not satisfy the requirement of a simple and self-evident truth as the Cogito did, could not be considered untouchable anymore. The first consequence of this reduction of truth to the identity was, in fact, Hume’s criticism of the classical concept of cause. That very unassailable principle of the ‘natural light’ that Descartes himself had employed as a lever in his first proof of the existence of God, now comes under investigation. The problem of causality in modern times arises then, I claim, in a logico-reductivistic framework which is...

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