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Academic Vocabulary in Context


David Hirsh

Academic texts present subject-specific ideas within a subject-independent framework. This book accounts for the presence of academic words in academic writing by exploring recurring patterns of function in texts representing different subject areas. The book presents a framework which describes academic word use at the ideational, textual and interpersonal levels. Functional categories are presented and illustrated which explain the role of academic words alongside general purpose and technical terms. The author examines biomedical research articles, and journal articles from arts, commerce and law. A comparable analysis focuses on university textbook chapters. Case studies investigate patterns of functionality within the main sections of research articles, compare word use in academic and non-academic texts reporting on the same research, and explore the carrier word function of academic vocabulary. The study concludes by looking at historical and contemporary processes which have shaped the presence of academic vocabulary in the English lexicon.


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Appendix 3. Textual analysis of Med2 187


Appendix 3. Textual analysis of Med2 All the academic words in the following text (Wiktor et al. 1999) are highlighted in italics and the assignment of each academic word occurrence to one of six functional categories is indicated by the appearance of the following symbols immediately before each word. Symbol Functional category Metatextual Extratextual Intratextual Scholarly process States of affairs Relations between entities Summary Background There is a high incidence of opportunistic infection among HIV 1 infected patients with tuberculosis in Africa and, consequently, high mortal- ity. We assessed the safety and efficacy of 55trimethoprim sulphamethoxazole 800 mg/160 mg (co-trimoxazole) prophylaxis in prevention of such infections and in decrease of morbidity and mortality Methods Between October, 1995, and April, 1998, we enrolled 771 HIV 1 seropositive and HIV and HIV 2 dually seroreactive patients who had sputum smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis (median age 32 years [range 18-64], median CD4 cell count 317 cells/.L) attending Abidjan’s four largest outpatient tuberculosis treatment centres. Patients were randomly assigned one daily tablet of co-trimoxazole (n 386) or placebo (n 385) 1 month after the start of a standard 6 month tuberculosis regimen. We assessed adherence to study drug and tolerance monthly for 5 months and every months thereafter, as well as rates of admission to hospital Findings Rates of laboratory and clinical adverse events were similar in the two groups. 51 patients in the co-trimoxazole group (13.8/100 person years) and 86 in the placebo group (25.4/100 person years) died (decrease In risk 46% [95%...

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