Diachronic, Diatopic and Contrastive Studies
This volume approaches the analysis of variation in English from diachronic, diatopic, and contrastive/comparative perspectives. The individual case studies, all closely interrelated, are organized into three parts or sections. Part I ( Diachronic Studies) applies a variationist methodology to the analysis of developments in the use of the courtesy marker please, adverbs in -ly, the s- genitive and a number of phrasal combinations with the verb get. It also examines Early Modern English regional dialect vocabulary. Part II ( Diatopic Studies) is concerned with the analysis of several morphological and phonological features in different varieties of English, namely Standard English, Modern Scottish English, Galwegian English, and Black South-African English. Part III ( Contrastive Studies) contains four chapters dealing with the contrastive analysis of a number of morphosyntactic features, such as the use of modifiers of adjectives by advanced learners of English, the acquisition and use of aspect by advanced EFL learners with different mother-tongue backgrounds, a comparison of the tempo-aspectual categories of English and Italian, and some of the problems encountered by researchers when compiling and analysing learner corpora of spoken language.
Part II: Diatopic Studies
ANISSA DAHAK Vowels in Inter-tonic Syllables: A Corpus-based Study 1. Introduction In generative phonology, the position of stress is predicted from morphology and vowel quality: a full vowel indicates a stressed syllable (the level of stress being defined by a variety of factors), and a reduced vowel [, ()/i or ()/u] therefore indicates a fully unstressed syllable. In the framework of Guierre’s (1979) phonological theory, itself in line with the British tradition of descriptive phonology of Jones et al. (2006), vowel quality is, on the contrary, inferred from the stress pattern. In the theory developed by Guierre, whose major contributions in the field have been to reveal the key role of morpho- logy and to integrate the written form into the system, stress place- ment is predicted through a variety of rules, based mainly on morpho- logy, but also involving phonological and graphematical criteria. Graphematics, which is the study of orthography as a graphic system, aims to represent oral forms (i.e. spelling to sound rules). Thus, the letters and , when together in as in ‘phonology’, work as a digraph to represent one sound ([f]). In phono-graphematics, the graphic form of words can be taken into account in the study of pho- nology, according to clearly defined rules. According to Guierre’s principles of stress, there is only one primary stress per word, two contiguous stresses are not permitted, two initial unstressed syllables are not allowed, and there are no stresses after the primary stress. As in most phonological systems of English, stress...
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