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The Literary Institution in Portugal since the Thirties

An Analysis under Special Consideration of the Publishing Market

Margarida Rendeiro

Despite the numerous studies of the politics, economy, culture, and society of the Estado Novo, the relations established between publishers, authors, and governmental institutions and their contribution to the making of the literary canon are still marginal subjects of analysis. Based on the systems theories developed by Bourdieu, Dubois and Even-Zohar, this study focuses on the cultural production produced during the Estado Novo (1933-1974) and after the Revolution (1974-2004), within their political, economic and social framework. The chapters on José Saramago and José Luís Peixoto show them as examples of literary consecration that confirm the systemic relations in the Portuguese literary field. This research makes use of a survey on habits of purchase of Portuguese fiction, interviews with publishers, original statistical analyses, and takes a new approach to the study of Portuguese literature.

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Acknowledgements ............................................................................... 9 Abstract ................................................................................................. 11 List of Acronyms .................................................................................. 13 Introduction .......................................................................................... 15 CHAPTER 1 Literature as an Institution: Systems Theory ................................... 21 CHAPTER 2 Education and Readership at the Service of Politics during the Estado Novo (1933-1974) ................................................. 35 CHAPTER 3 Literary Canon and Ideology in the Formation of Cultural Identity during the Estado Novo (1933-1974) ............. 55 3.1 SPN/SNI/SEIT .......................................................................... 56 3.2 The Secretariado’s Literary Prizes ........................................ 60 3.3 Public Libraries and the SNI Mobile Library Service ........ 70 3.4 SNI Exhibitions ........................................................................ 73 3.5 Censorship ............................................................................... 76 3.6 Prestige of Publishers of Prizewinners ................................ 79 3.7 International Promotion of Portuguese Novels .................. 81 CHAPTER 4 Compromise and Autonomy in Consecration during the Estado Novo ...................................................................... 89 6 CHAPTER 5 Politics, Economy and Social Environment as Constraints on the Constitution of Readership between 1974 and 2004 ......... 119 CHAPTER 6 Consecration and Legitimacy in the Portuguese Literary Field between 1974 and 2004 ............................................. 143 6.1 Honours given by the President of the Republic .............. 146 6.2 Literary Prizes ........................................................................ 152 6.3 The Symbolic Capital of Prizewinners and Publishing Houses ................................................................ 158 CHAPTER 7 José Saramago and José Luís Peixoto: Two Case Studies of Literary Legitimacy and Consecration ....... 169 7.1 José Saramago ........................................................................ 169 7.1.1 Social Trajectory ........................................................... 169 7.1.2 Reviewing and Prefacing ............................................ 174 7.1.3 Political Awareness .................................................... 177 7.1.4. Novels ........................................................................... 180 7.1.5. Editorial Caminho ....................................................... 182 7.2 José Luís Peixoto .................................................................. 197 CHAPTER 8 International Acceptance of José Saramago and José Luís Peixoto .......................................................................... 205 8.1 Brazil ...................................................................................... 208 8.2 Spain ....................................................................................... 217 8.3 United States of America ..................................................... 228 8.4 United Kingdom ................................................................... 240 8.5 José Luis Peixoto ................................................................... 257 8.6 Conclusion ............................................................................. 259 Conclusion...

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