Correspondences with Welch, Cushing, Garrison, and Ackerknecht
Edited By Marcel H. Bickel
2. Correspondence Henry E. Sigerist – Harvey Cushing 1926–1939
40 41 2.1. Introduction 2.1.1. Harvey Cushing (1869–1939) Born in Cleveland in 1869, the son of a physician, Harvey Cushing was raised in a family with a long tradi- tion of medicine. He obtained his B. A. at Yale in 1891 and an M. D. at Harvard in 1895. From 1896 to 1912 Cushing worked at the Johns Hopkins Medical School under the famous surgeon and teacher William Halsted, doing research on the struc- ture and physiology of the nervous system. The years 1900–1901 pro- vided further training in England, France, Switzerland, and Germany. Back in Baltimore he became asso- ciate professor, further specializing in neurosurgery and the pituitary gland. During all these years at Hopkins he also felt the influence of Osler, Kelly, and Welch who also awakened an interest in the history of medicine in Cushing. In 1912 Cushing continued his career at Harvard. At Peter Bent Brigham Hospital he became the world leader in the new speciality of neurosur- gery. He introduced technical innovations, operated with impeccable tech- nique and careful handling of tissues, showing concern for the welfare of his patients. He also directed laboratories for experimental surgery and created a classification of brain tumors. During WWI he was head of the Harvard Base Hospital in France. When he retired in 1932 at age 63 he had operated 2000 brain tumors, written over 300 scientific papers and had dramatically improved the field of neurosurgery. In 1931 Cushing declined Welch’s chair of the History of...
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