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After the Internet, Before Democracy

Competing Norms in Chinese Media and Society

Johan Lagerkvist

China has lived with the Internet for nearly two decades. Will increased Internet use, with new possibilities to share information and discuss news and politics, lead to democracy, or will it to the contrary sustain a nationalist supported authoritarianism that may eventually contest the global information order?
This book takes stock of the ongoing tug of war between state power and civil society on and off the Internet, a phenomenon that is fast becoming the centerpiece in the Chinese Communist Party’s struggle to stay in power indefinitely. It interrogates the dynamics of this enduring contestation, before democracy, by following how Chinese society travels from getting access to the Internet to our time having the world’s largest Internet population. Pursuing the rationale of Internet regulation, the rise of the Chinese blogosphere and citizen journalism, Internet irony, online propaganda, the relation between state and popular nationalism, and finally the role of social media to bring about China’s democratization, this book offers a fresh and provocative perspective on the arguable role of media technologies in the process of democratization, by applying social norm theory to illuminate the competition between the Party-state norm and the youth/subaltern norm in Chinese media and society.

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Index 319

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319 Index Aeschylus 214 Accountability 37, 59, 67, 77–81, 99– 101, 261, 283 Activism 16–18, 79–83, 91, 112, 123, 245, 268–272, 274–281, 285; online 16, 83, 245, 276; offline 276, 285 Ahmadinejad, Mahmoud 87 Ai, Weiwei 66, 80, 279 Angry youth 76–77, 81, 191–193, 195, 206, 214, 221, 270 Anti-CNN 76, 78, 216 Anti-rightist movement 93 Authoritarian states 249, 262 Authoritarianism 51 147, 197, 265 Baidu 14, 139, 232–233, 236, 242, 245, 251, 253 Barlow, John Perry 17 Bei Feng 97, 110, 121, 171, 283 Beijing 15, 35, 45, 46, 53, 56, 77, 95, 100, 103, 109, 110, 113, 114, 118, 165, 179, 202, 204–208, 210–212, 229, 237 Beijing News Broadcasting 110 Belgrade, NATO bombing of 123, 179, 198, 200, 216 Bildt, Carl 87 Blocking, of Google 232, 234 and filtering of Internet content 16, 49, 57, 62, 234, 251 Blog 16, 24–25, 56; role of 61, 67–69; service provider (BSP) 73, 80, 279 Blogosphere 34, 65, 79–81, 83–84, 92, 97, 111, 116, 172, 271, 283; rise of 36, 75, 77, 88, 119, 203, 270; mapping of 70–75 Brin Sergey 254 Bulletin board systems (BBS) 25, 80, 102, 118, 127; university 147, 170 Burma 41 Bush, George W. 82, 248 Capitalism 24, 112, 151, 222, 228, 268; state- 33, 258; Party-state 251 Central Propaganda Department 14, 24, 32, 41, 56, 66, 95, 101–102, 104, 139, 143, 162, 189, 204, 211 Chat rooms 13, 16,...

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