Contributions to Multilingualism in European Contexts
Edited By Yolanda Ruiz de Zarobe, Juan Manuel Sierra and Francisco Gallardo del Puerto
The present volume bears witness to the Europewide character of the Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) enterprise by featuring contributions from researchers and teacher-educators from a range of European countries spanning the geographical expanse of the continent from east (Estonia) to west (United Kingdom) and from north (Finland) to south (Spain, Italy). More importantly, the different national contexts are characterised by diverse cultural stances and policies vis-à-vis second and foreign language learning in general and learning specific languages in particular and it is evident that such contextual factors impinge on what are identified as central concerns both in CLIL implementation and research.
YOLANDA RUIZ DE ZAROBE / JUAN MANUEL SIERRA / FRANCISCO GALLARDO DEL PUERTO
Introduction – Content and Foreign Language Integrated Learning: a Plurilingual Perspective In the last decades the European institutions have strongly commit- ted themselves to the promotion of linguistic diversity and pluri- lingualism in language education policy. To that end, several Euro- pean projects have recommended the implementation of reforms to develop learners’ communication skills in several languages and to encourage innovations in language teaching and teacher training. The results of these projects have been embodied, for instance, in a number of Resolutions and Recommendations of the Council of Europe (2006).1 But already in 1998, the Committee of Ministers Concern- ing Modern Languages emphasised intercultural communication and plurilingualism as key policy goals in Europe (Recommendation no. R 98/6). The Committee set out concrete measures to promote wide- spread plurilingualism, among others: • by encouraging all Europeans to achieve a degree of commu- nicative ability in a number of languages; • by diversifying the languages on offer and setting objectives appropriate to each language; • by encouraging teaching programmes at all levels that use a flexible approach – including modular courses and those which aim to develop partial competences – and giving them appro- priate recognition in national qualification systems, in particu- lar public examinations; 1 Plurilingual Education in Europe: 50 years of International cooperation. (2006) Council of Europe: Language Policy Division: Strasbourg. Accessible at: . 12 Y. Ruiz de Zarobe / J. M. Sierra / F. Gallardo del Puerto • by encouraging the use of foreign languages in the teaching of non-linguistic subjects (for example history, geography, mathe-...
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