Class, culture, migration and mothering
A Note on Translation and Spelling - 11
11 A Note on Translation and Spelling All Chinese names or terms in this book, except for well-known names and terms in the Western literature such as “Confucian”, are translated using the pinyin system. In Mandarin, there are four tones to indicate different sounds on the vowel. The tones are not specified. However, for key words, the Chinese characters are added in brackets in addition to the pinyin translations for clarification. All Chinese characters used in this book are simplified Chinese. Pinyin is the Chinese phonetic system. It is the Romanisation system for standard Mandarin, a measure by the Chinese government that aimed to increase the literacy rate. The first edition of pinyin was adopted at the Fifth Session of the First National People’s Congress on 11 February, 1958 (see Xinhua News Agency, 2008a).
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