Practical and Theoretical Approaches
Edited By Adriana Serban, Anna Matamala and Jean Marc Lavaur
Most contributions to this volume originate from the international bilingual conference «Audiovisual Translation: Multidisciplinary Approaches/La traduction audiovisuelle : Approches pluridisciplinaires» held in Montpellier, France, in 2008.
Audio description in close-up
The audio description of emotions and gestures in Spanish-spoken films PAULA IGAREDA Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain 1. Introduction Audio description (AD) is an intersemiotic transfer mode that makes per- forming arts, audiovisual products, countries’ natural, historic and cul- tural heritage, and all kinds of socio-cultural events accessible to wider audiences. According to AENOR (2005: 4), it can be defined as “a set of techniques and abilities whose main objective is to compensate for the lack of perception of the visual component in any audiovisual message, by providing suitable sound information which translates or explains, in such a way that the visually impaired perceive the message as a harmonious work which is as similar as possible to that which is perceived by the sighted”1. Many recommendations on AD can be found in existing studies and guidelines (e. g. ITC 2000; Benecke 2004; AENOR 2005; Remael 2005; Ofcom 2006; Orero 2006b; Puigdomènech, Matamala and Orero 2007; Remael and Vercauteren 2007; Vercauteren 2007). These studies state that visual elements, both of a non-verbal and of a written nature, have to be taken into account when creating an AD. Non-verbal visual elements deal with where (places and spaces, dimension of the places, location of the characters, lighting, relationship between the characters and the places), when (the time/period when everything happens), who (the characters in general, describing who talks, their clothing, their physical appearance, their facial expressions, body language, age, attitudes), and what (action, colours, music and other noises). As for...
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