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Collateral Adjectives and Related Issues

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Tetsuya Koshiishi

This monograph constitutes an example of a meaning-based approach to English morphology, which has far-reaching implications on lexicographical, sociolinguistic, and contrastive studies.
Collateral adjectives are Latinate relational adjectives, typically meaning ‘of’ or ‘pertaining to ...’, such as paternal (base noun: father), vernal (base noun: spring), etc. The existence of these adjectives poses serious problems to form-based approaches to morphology because of their apparent derivational status, they provide us with extreme cases where these adjectives and base nouns are formally unconnected.
The author shows that the meaning-based approach has real benefits not only in the theoretical analysis of them but also in their lexicographical treatment and in the description of the sociolinguistics of their use.
In addition, after comparing English and Japanese, the author explains how, in English, the knowledge of these adjectives is not acquired automatically with literacy and hence has come to matter in sociolinguistics terms.

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1. Introduction 1

Extract

CHAPTER 1 Introduction 1.1. Aims This book is devoted to the study of collateral adjectives (CAs) in English. The term CA is used to denote ‘Latinate1 suppletive relational adjective’. The following list shows some examples of CAs preceded by their corresponding semantically related base nouns (BNs): (1.1)2 spring – vernal summer – aestival fall (AmE) – autumnal winter – hibernal cat – feline dog – canine bear – ursine horse – equine cow – bovine wolf – lupine arm – brachial heart – cardiac mouth – oral nose – nasal, rhinal iron – ferric ice – gelid, glacial father – paternal mother – maternal day – diurnal night – nocturnal ship – naval lake – lacustrine forest – sylvan church –ecclesiastical, ecclesial To the best of my knowledge, the first time this term appeared in the linguistic literature can be traced to the 1950s, when dictionaries pub- lished by Funk & Wagnalls used it to list this group of adjectives in English under the entries of their BNs. 1 As we shall see in 2.1, the term ‘Latinate’ in the present book applies not only to Latin and its daughter languages but also to Greek. 2 These examples are taken from ORD1. 2 Later, Pyles and Algeo (1970: 129) refer to the above adjectives as CAs. Thomas Pyles is one of the editors of the dictionaries published by Funk & Wagnalls and is assumed to be the inventor of the term. Ac- cording to those authors, CAs are ‘[adjectives that] are closely related in meaning but different in form from their corresponding nouns, like eq- uine and horse [. . .]’ So far as the linguistic...

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