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Cohesion: A Discourse Perspective

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Thomas Christiansen

This book represents a fresh look at cohesion, the point of departure being Halliday and Hasan’s seminal Cohesion in English, which is examined in depth as are other notable approaches to cohesion such as Hoey’s Patterns of Lexis in Text. It also compares different studies of relevance to cohesion from other areas of linguistics, such as: generative grammar, Functional Sentence Perspective (FSP), and corpus linguistics. In this way, this work extends discussion of cohesion beyond the realms of systemic linguistics to include a broader spectrum of approaches including research into languages other than English. The main focus, however, is on varieties of English and on general and specialised discourse types.
Rather than limiting itself to the text as product, the manifestation of a discourse, this book looks at cohesion from the wider perspective of discourse, seen as an interactive process. Consequently, different sociolinguistic and cultural factors are also taken into consideration: How far is cohesion a constitutive feature of text? What is the precise link between cohesion and coherence? What specific role does discourse have in phenomena such as anaphora? Do such things as cohesive universals exist across languages? How far do socio-cultural, or discourse-specific, conventions contribute to the type and degree of cohesion present in a text?

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Preface .................................................................................................. 9 Chapter 1. The Concept of Cohesion 1.1. Introduction: a new approach to cohesion .............................. 15 1.2. Cohesive ties ........................................................................... 16 1.3. Cohesion within and between sentences ................................ 25 1.4. Cohesion in relation to text and discourse .............................. 30 1.5. Conclusion: overview of basic types of cohesive tie .............. 49 Chapter 2. Cohesive Reference 2.1. Introduction: avoiding ambiguity through revision of terminology ....................................................................... 53 2.2. Reference in philosophy ........................................................ 54 2.3. Endophoric reference ............................................................. 58 2.4. Types of cohesive reference: Halliday and Hasan’s classification ....................................... 64 2.4.1. Personal reference ........................................................ 66 2.4.2. Demonstrative reference ............................................. 71 2.4.2.1. Adverbial demonstratives .............................. 73 2.4.2.2. Pronominal/Determiner demonstratives ........ 74 2.4.2.3. The definite determiner the ........................... 78 2.4.2.4. Demonstratives in archaic varieties of English ...................................................... 83 2.4.3. Comparative reference ................................................. 86 2.5. Conclusion: cohesive reference in specialised discourse ....... 91 Chapter 3. Substitution 3.1.Introduction: substitution as grammatical anaphora ................ 95 3.2. Nominal substitution .............................................................. 96 3.2.1. Nominal substitution with one ..................................... 97 3.2.2. Nominal substitution with the same .......................... 108 6 3.2.3. Attributive nominal substitution ................................ 110 3.3. Verbal substitution ............................................................... 112 3.4. Clausal substitution .............................................................. 119 3.4.1. Reported clauses ........................................................ 119 3.4.2. Conditional clauses .................................................... 124 3.4.3. Modalised clauses ...................................................... 125 3.5. Conclusion: implications for studies of substitution in different languages and in different discourse types ............ 126 Chapter 4. Ellipsis 4.1. Introduction: ellipsis as a distinct form of grammatical anaphora ............................................................................... 131 4.2. Nominal ellipsis ................................................................... 134 4.3. Verbal ellipsis ...................................................................... 144 4.4. Clausal ellipsis ..................................................................... 153 4.5. Conclusion: the communicative dynamism of ellipsis ........ 157 Chapter 5. Conjunction 5.1. Introduction: the complex nature of conjunctions ................ 161 5.2. Additive ............................................................................... 169 5.2.1. Additive (external/internal) ....................................... 170 5.2.2. Additive (internal-only) ............................................. 172 5.3. Adversatives......................................................................... 175 5.3.1. Adversative (external/internal)...

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