Edited By Daniel Madrid Fernandez and Stephen Hughes
Part III: Case Studies
MIGUEL ANGEL PÉREZ ABAD Chapter 9: The International Spanish Academies in California 1. Brief introduction The first bilingual attempts started in the US in the 1970´s, following the Canadian experiences in the 1960’s. Here, we are referring to the Foreign Language Immersion Programs (Lenker/Rhodes 2007), as a way to introduce the intensive learning of an L2. These programs en- joyed great success from the beginning, and gradually developed into different models: bilingual programs, total immersion, partial immer- sion, dual immersion, two-way immersion, etc. The terminology is enormously varied. All the above-mentioned attempts have undergone several at- tacks by the lobbyist of the English Only movement over the last few years. This movement claims that English should be the only language taught to US children, as they understand that the language is the main factor of cohesion in any country. This lobby has been counterbal- anced by the supporters of English plus, who claim that learning lan- guages besides English is also a national asset that the nation cannot afford to lose. Activists of English plus include scholars such as Stephen Krashen and Jim Crawford, staunch supporters of bilingual- ism. According to the National Dual Language Consortium, there are four main types of dual language program, which mainly differ in the population: 1) Developmental, or maintenance, bilingual programs. These enroll primarily students who are native speakers of the partner language. 240 Miguel Ángel Pérez Abad 2) Two-way (bilingual) immersion programs. These enroll a balance of native English speakers...
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