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Ways of the World’s Words

Language Contact in the Age of Globalization

Series:

Zsuzsa Hoffmann

This book investigates lexical borrowing processes of our era in a sociolinguistic context. Innovatively, it seeks to examine language contact in a comprehensive way, taking into account socio- and psycholinguistic aspects as well as implications for language politics.
As the sociolinguistic focus is primary, the volume also discusses how technology influences languages and to what extent it creates new conditions for language contact. As a result, it is proposed that the term language contact needs to be reevaluated, since the context of globalization has changed its very essence.
As the increase in the importance of English has been the most significant global geolinguistic event in the past fifty years, the role of English as an international lingua franca in modern borrowing is analyzed in detail. Two case studies are also given, one on the role of English in the EU and another on the linguistic situation of multilingual Switzerland. The characteristic features of lexical borrowing are illustrated in a complex way on linguistic material of a total of over 5000 recent loans in English, Spanish, German and Hungarian.

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Contents

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1. Foreword .......................................................................................... 9 2. English as a global language .......................................................... 15 2.1. General questions and issues ................................................... 15 2.2. The presence of English in the world ...................................... 17 2.2.1. Trudgill’s model ............................................................. 17 2.2.2. Phillipson’s model .......................................................... 17 2.2.3. Kachru’s model .............................................................. 19 2.3. English as a lingua franca ........................................................ 22 2.3.1. Terminological questions ............................................... 22 2.3.2. Reasons for the global role of English ........................... 26 2.4. Globalization and the role of English in the world .................. 29 2.4.1. Linguistic imperialism, linguicism, linguistic genocide .. 31 2.4.2. Linguistic effects of globalization .................................. 34 2.5. De Swaan’s theory on the global language system .................. 37 2.6. The influence of English in various domains of life ................ 44 2.7. Opposition against the dominance of English ......................... 48 2.7.1. The postcolonial context ................................................ 49 2.7.2. The European context..................................................... 51 2.8. The impact of globalization on English: International English . 54 2.9. International English and Medieval Latin ............................... 64 2.10. The linguistic situation of the European Union ..................... 68 2.10.1. Linguistic, demographic background and language knowledge .......................................................... 68 2.10.2. The level of civil society in the European Union ......... 70 2.10.2.1. Internal communication between member states: a new kind of diglossia or bilingualism? ............... 71 2.10.2.2. Transnational communication ............................... 73 2.10.3. The institutional level of the European Union ............. 80 3. Language contact ............................................................................ 85 3.1. On language contact in general ................................................ 85 6 3.2. Societal bi- and multilingualism .............................................. 88 3.2.1. Terminological questions ............................................... 89 3.2.2. Types of societal bilingualism ........................................ 91 3.2.3. Reasons for the emergence of societal bilingualism ...... 92 3.2.4. Types of multilingual countries ...................................... 93 3.2.5. Multilingualism and language contact ........................... 96 3.3. Borrowing, code-switching and code-mixing .......................... 97 3.4. Where and...

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