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Challenges and Reforms in Vocational Education

Aspects of Inclusion and Exclusion

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Edited By Stefanie Stolz and Philipp Gonon

In this collected edition, globalization and its consequences on vocational education systems are described and, at the same time, combined with the question of whether new phenomena of inclusion but also of exclusion are produced. Inclusion and exclusion are differentiations that predominate in all kinds of (vocational education) systems, regardless of their national background. These terms base on the requirements of the system itself but also on shortages, particularly when supply and demand are dehiscing. Vocational education developed out of the requirement to integrate large parts of society into a broader or more extended education and, consequently, into an economic and social process. Besides the so-called «social question», gender-, status- and generation-specific characteristics and also the participation in higher education are under discussion. Depending on each country – this volume features contributions of Australia, Canada, China, Germany, Denmark, France, Finland, Japan, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, and the USA – this debate generates a different development which is described by the authors in their different research areas. Collectively, a multifaceted overall picture arises which illustrates the importance of inclusion and exclusion.

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STEFANIE STOLZ & PHILIPP GONON Inclusion and Exclusion – A Challenge in the Context of Globalisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 I. Global Trends in Education and Vocational Education and Training GITA STEINER-KHAMSI Education Policy in a Globalized World . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 STEPHEN BILLETT Vocational Education and Training, Culture and Self: Dominant Interests, Diverse Traditions and Vocational Education in Globalised Times . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 PHILIPPE MÉHAUT Three Challenges for the VET Systems: The End or the Rebirth of Vocational Education? . . . . . . . . . . . 73 II. Gender Mainstreaming and the Mechanisms of Inclusion ANJA HEIKKINEN, JOHANNA LAMMELA, LEENA LIETZÉN, JOHANNA LÄTTI, EMMA VIRTANEN Gender Mainstreaming: Inclusion or Exclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 PATRICIA A. CARTER Gender Mainstreaming: Implications for Inclusion and Exclusion in Employability and Vocational Education and Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 6 Table of Contents IDA JUUL The Transformation of Office Work from a Male to a Female Occupation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 III. Vocational Education and Social Inclusion BEATRIX NIEMEYER The Impacts of European Social Inclusion Policy on National Educational Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 MAIJA HIRVONEN Towards Inclusion? Vocational Special Needs Education from a Historical Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 JULIAN STANLEY Diplomas and Inclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 MIKIKO ESWEIN The Present and Future Role of Vocational Education and Training in Japan Under the Aspect of Inclusion and Exclusion in a Globalised World . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 IV. School-to-Work Transition SVEIN MICHELSEN & HÅKON HØST Apprenticeship, Youth and Labour Market Outcomes – A Diachronic Investigation into the Norwegian Case . . . . . . . . 215 ANTJE BARABASCH & BONNIE WATT-MALCOLM Merging Academic and Vocational Learning: Inclusion and Exclusion in Selected School-to-Work Programs in Canada and the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 7V. Higher Education: Access...

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