Aspects of Inclusion and Exclusion
Edited By Stefanie Stolz and Philipp Gonon
IV. School-to-Work Transition
SVEIN MICHELSEN & HÅKON HØST Apprenticeship, Youth and Labour Market Outcomes – A Diachronic Investigation into the Norwegian Case Introduction The question of youth transitions into the labour market has been extensively debated for the last twenty years in almost every ad- vanced capitalist society. The basic reason has been the same almost everywhere, the long-term tendency towards a declining youth la- bour market (Furlong, 1987). The main catalysts for this tendency have been economic restructuring and the elimination of occupa- tions, jobs and unqualified labour markets that teenagers used to en- ter (Roberts, Clark & Wallace, 1994). But this development cannot be exclusively attributed to labour market considerations. A number of other factors must also be taken into account. This includes the desire to turn childhood and adolescence into a period of personal growth and liberation from the pressures of production as well as the increasing propensity among youth (and their parents) to engage in education. A common policy response has been to widen post compulsory education and training in order to cater for the entire 16–19 year age cohorts and the formation of a vocational training system where a substantial percentage of these youth cohorts have been directed. This has also been the case in Norway. In 1994 an encompassing reform was carried out, reconstructing the apprenticeship system as an integrated part of a comprehensive upper secondary education system. One of the primary aims of the reform was to secure more smooth and swift transitions into the labour...
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