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Challenges and Reforms in Vocational Education

Aspects of Inclusion and Exclusion

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Edited By Stefanie Stolz and Philipp Gonon

In this collected edition, globalization and its consequences on vocational education systems are described and, at the same time, combined with the question of whether new phenomena of inclusion but also of exclusion are produced. Inclusion and exclusion are differentiations that predominate in all kinds of (vocational education) systems, regardless of their national background. These terms base on the requirements of the system itself but also on shortages, particularly when supply and demand are dehiscing. Vocational education developed out of the requirement to integrate large parts of society into a broader or more extended education and, consequently, into an economic and social process. Besides the so-called «social question», gender-, status- and generation-specific characteristics and also the participation in higher education are under discussion. Depending on each country – this volume features contributions of Australia, Canada, China, Germany, Denmark, France, Finland, Japan, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, and the USA – this debate generates a different development which is described by the authors in their different research areas. Collectively, a multifaceted overall picture arises which illustrates the importance of inclusion and exclusion.

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V. Higher Education: Access and Counselling

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BETTINA SIECKE Transition from Vocational Education and Training to Higher Education in Germany and Switzerland – A Perspective of Social Inclusion and Exclusion Introduction and Main Issues Vocational education and training (VET) has become an important topic since the meeting of the Lisbon European Council in March 2000. In connection with aims like strengthening employment, eco- nomic reform and social cohesion, there is increased cooperation in VET with the aim of promoting mutual trust, transparency and rec- ognition of competencies and qualifications by establishing a basis for increasing mobility and facilitating access to lifelong learning (European Commission, 2002). For most European countries, these new dimensions of VET pose a number of challenges. This is particularly true with respect to in- creasing permeability within and between VET systems. Permeabil- ity is seen as the possibility of using pathways within a national VET system or of transferring to neighbouring educational subsystems in order to avoid redundant learning processes (Frommberger, 2009, p. 1). A special field of permeability lies in the transition from VET to higher education, which, as a reform object, is supported by Euro- pean Union policy as a viable instrument for increasing mobility and facilitating access to lifelong learning. Germany and Switzerland (as a non-member of the EU) are coun- tries which are deeply involved in these European challenges. Both countries have similarities regarding the structure of their VET sys- tems (for a comparative approach see Greinert, 1995; and Deißinger, 1995). In both countries, dual apprenticeship training following the so-called...

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