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New Trends and Methodologies in Applied English Language Research II

Studies in Language Variation, Meaning and Learning

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Edited By David Tizón Couto, Beatriz Tizon-Couto, Iria Pastor-Gomez and Maurizio Gotti

This volume has its origin in a selection of the papers presented at the Second ELC International Postgraduate Conference on English Linguistics (ELC2), held at the University of Vigo in October 2009 and designed and organised by postgraduate students belonging to the English Departments of the Universities of Vigo and Santiago de Compostela. The purpose of the conference was to allow young professional researchers to share and survey their current views on linguistic research. Four of the ten chapters included address the diachronic change undergone by particular lexical items, namely the morphosemantic change illustrated by the development of the morpheme punk, the historical evolution of including and included, the origin and semantics of the expletive form adsheartlikins, and the structure and distribution of nominalisations referring to actions or processes. Variation is also approached from a diatopic perspective in the study of expressions of obligation and necessity ( must and have to) in New Englishes, the distribution and functions of the discourse marker eh in Channel Island English, and regional variability of vowel phonology in Scottish Standard English. Lastly, three studies address semantics and culture in the field of L2 learning. These contributions focus on the assessment of Lexical Frequency Profile applications in the analysis of Romanian learner English, the role of cultural knowledge in the learning process of English as an International Language, and L1 typicality effects in L2 vocabulary learning.

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PAULA RODRÍGUEZ-ABRUÑEIRAS - From Full Verbal Forms to Markers of Exemplification: Including and Included as a Case of Grammaticalisation? 125

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PAULA RODRÍGUEZ-ABRUÑEIRAS From Full Verbal Forms to Markers of Exemplification: Including and Included as a Case of Grammaticalisation?1 1. Introduction The present chapter is devoted to the study and analysis of the changes undergone by the items including and included, from their origins as verbal forms belonging to the paradigm of the verb to include to the present day, when they also function as markers of exemplification, as in examples (1) and (2) below: (1) She loved bright objects and pleasant sounds, including that of her own voice (LOB, G29: 11) (2) Experienced speakers, politicians included, often do read speeches, but they still manage to make them sound as if they are just speaking from notes (FLOB, F03: 72) As noted by Quirk et al. (1985) and Meyer (1992), the first unit in exemplification has a more general referent, whereas the second unit is more concrete and specific since it is an example of that general term. I will call these units the General Element (GE) and the Exem- 1 For generous financial support, I am grateful to the European Regional Devel- opment Fund and the following institutions: Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (grants HUM2007-60706 and FFI2011-26693-C02-01), Autonomous Government of Galicia (grant CN2011/011) and Spanish Minis- try of Education (FPU grant 2007-04514). I would also like to thank María José López-Couso for helpful discussion and valuable feedback on earlier ver- sions of this chapter. All remaining errors are mine. 126 Paula Rodríguez-Abruñeiras...

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