Studies in Language Variation, Meaning and Learning
PAULA RODRÍGUEZ-ABRUÑEIRAS - From Full Verbal Forms to Markers of Exemplification: Including and Included as a Case of Grammaticalisation? 125
PAULA RODRÍGUEZ-ABRUÑEIRAS From Full Verbal Forms to Markers of Exemplification: Including and Included as a Case of Grammaticalisation?1 1. Introduction The present chapter is devoted to the study and analysis of the changes undergone by the items including and included, from their origins as verbal forms belonging to the paradigm of the verb to include to the present day, when they also function as markers of exemplification, as in examples (1) and (2) below: (1) She loved bright objects and pleasant sounds, including that of her own voice (LOB, G29: 11) (2) Experienced speakers, politicians included, often do read speeches, but they still manage to make them sound as if they are just speaking from notes (FLOB, F03: 72) As noted by Quirk et al. (1985) and Meyer (1992), the first unit in exemplification has a more general referent, whereas the second unit is more concrete and specific since it is an example of that general term. I will call these units the General Element (GE) and the Exem- 1 For generous financial support, I am grateful to the European Regional Devel- opment Fund and the following institutions: Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (grants HUM2007-60706 and FFI2011-26693-C02-01), Autonomous Government of Galicia (grant CN2011/011) and Spanish Minis- try of Education (FPU grant 2007-04514). I would also like to thank María José López-Couso for helpful discussion and valuable feedback on earlier ver- sions of this chapter. All remaining errors are mine. 126 Paula Rodríguez-Abruñeiras...
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