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Property rights and their violations - La propriété violée

Expropriations and confiscations, 16 th –20 th Centuries- Expropriations et confiscations, XVI e –XX e siècles

Edited By Luigi Lorenzetti, Michela Barbot and Luca Mocarelli

Interest in the history of ownership rights is growing and spreading to different disciplines. Historians are turning their attention mainly to the rise of private and individual ownership as it was codified in 19 th -century liberal Europe. In writing this history, however, their perspective has too often ignored the other side of the coin, namely the restrictions which the sovereign imposed on such rights, allegedly in the interest of the community.
The papers collected in the present volume suggest that private property is not necessarily the most safeguarded legal model, hence it is not less vulnerable to violation. They construct a close analysis of the most common forms of abuse of private property on record – expropriation, seizure, and confiscation – perpetrated by public authorities. They also seek to define the uneasy, often intricate relation between legal and legitimate. In a perspective of lights and shadows, the role of confiscation and expropriation changes : now seen as powerful instruments of change, now as enduring factors of conservation in the evolution of private ownership rights.
Les droits de propriété sont depuis longtemps au cœur de l’intérêt de diverses disciplines. L’attention des historiens s’est focalisée surtout sur la naissance de la propriété privée et individuelle telle qu’elle a été codifiée dans l’Europe libérale du XIX e siècle. Toutefois, son histoire a trop souvent négligé l’autre face de la médaille, à savoir les limites fixées à ce droit par le souverain au nom de l’intérêt de la collectivité. Les contributions figurant dans ce volume suggèrent que la propriété privée individuelle ne représente pas le modèle juridique le plus apte à la protéger face aux risques d’infraction. Au cœur des analyses il y a les formes historiques de la violation de la propriété privée – expropriations, saisies, confiscations – perpétrées par les autorités et le rapport, souvent complexe et ambigüe, entre les dimensions de la légalité et de la légitimité. Dans un jeu d’ombres et de lumières, les confiscations et les expropriations se dessinent à la fois comme de puissants instruments de changement et de tenaces facteur de conservation dans l’évolution des formes de propriété.

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Jewish Assets in Italy : Attachment, Confiscation and Restitution (1938–1945 / 1943–2001) - Marino Viganò 81

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Jewish Assets in Italy : Attachment, Confiscation and Restitution (1938–1945 / 1943–2001) Marino Viganò The “Commission on Jewish Assets” On 1 December 1998 the then president of the Council of Ministers of the Italian Republic, Massimo D’Alema, set up a Commission for the reconstruc- tion of the events characterising the activities of acquisition in Italy of the assets of Jewish citizens by public and private organisations, more commonly known as the “Commission on Jewish Assets”. The decrees confirmed the proposal originally issued in note 2.664, dated 30 March 1998, by Carlo Azeglio Ciampi, Minister of the Treasury in the first Prodi government. After the fall of that government on 9 October, Ciampi’s note was acknowledged and carried into effect by the first D’Alema government, which was in power from 21 October. Presided over by Tina Anselmi, deputy of the Christian Democrats from 1968 to 1992 and former president of the parliamentary commission of inquiry into the Masonic lodge “P2” from 1981 to 1985, the “Commission on Jewish Assets” included a dozen members who were high officials of the state, repre- sentatives of Bank and insurance associations, delegates of the Italian Union of Jewish communities, and archivists and historiographers nominated by the prime minister from universities, ministries or other relevant institues1. On 1 “Art. 2 § 1. The Commission is composed as follows : honourable Tina Anselmi, president ; dott.ssa Paola Carucci, supervisor of State Central Archive, member ; dott. Piero Cinti, private secretary of the Ministry of Industry, Commerce and Agriculture, member ; avv....

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