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Property rights and their violations - La propriété violée

Expropriations and confiscations, 16 th –20 th Centuries- Expropriations et confiscations, XVI e –XX e siècles

Edited By Luigi Lorenzetti, Michela Barbot and Luca Mocarelli

Interest in the history of ownership rights is growing and spreading to different disciplines. Historians are turning their attention mainly to the rise of private and individual ownership as it was codified in 19 th -century liberal Europe. In writing this history, however, their perspective has too often ignored the other side of the coin, namely the restrictions which the sovereign imposed on such rights, allegedly in the interest of the community.
The papers collected in the present volume suggest that private property is not necessarily the most safeguarded legal model, hence it is not less vulnerable to violation. They construct a close analysis of the most common forms of abuse of private property on record – expropriation, seizure, and confiscation – perpetrated by public authorities. They also seek to define the uneasy, often intricate relation between legal and legitimate. In a perspective of lights and shadows, the role of confiscation and expropriation changes : now seen as powerful instruments of change, now as enduring factors of conservation in the evolution of private ownership rights.
Les droits de propriété sont depuis longtemps au cœur de l’intérêt de diverses disciplines. L’attention des historiens s’est focalisée surtout sur la naissance de la propriété privée et individuelle telle qu’elle a été codifiée dans l’Europe libérale du XIX e siècle. Toutefois, son histoire a trop souvent négligé l’autre face de la médaille, à savoir les limites fixées à ce droit par le souverain au nom de l’intérêt de la collectivité. Les contributions figurant dans ce volume suggèrent que la propriété privée individuelle ne représente pas le modèle juridique le plus apte à la protéger face aux risques d’infraction. Au cœur des analyses il y a les formes historiques de la violation de la propriété privée – expropriations, saisies, confiscations – perpétrées par les autorités et le rapport, souvent complexe et ambigüe, entre les dimensions de la légalité et de la légitimité. Dans un jeu d’ombres et de lumières, les confiscations et les expropriations se dessinent à la fois comme de puissants instruments de changement et de tenaces facteur de conservation dans l’évolution des formes de propriété.

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Expropriation as a Planning Tool. Limitations and Contradictions : The Town Plan for the Central Neighbourhoods of Padua (1921–1927) - Stefano Zaggia 247

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Expropriation as a Planning Tool. Limitations and Contradictions : The Town Plan for the Central Neighbourhoods of Padua (1921–1927) Stefano Zaggia Throughout the nineteenth century Padua maintained an urban structure that was almost identical to the one that emerged at the time of the fall of the Venetian State. The urban agglomeration did not undergo major expansion and continued to remain stable within the walls mapped out in the first half of the 16th century. In fact, the choices made in the modern era were to have a strong impact on the city’s subsequent development : the defensive system was not only extensive (encompassing around eleven kilometres of fortifications), but almost hald of the enclosed area was undeveloped (cultivated land, fields, gardens). On the threshold of the 20th century, the city was still entirely within the walls, maintained as a customs frontier and characterised by large empty spaces which could be used for a building expansion project, but this solution was never considered. Until 1901 the city continued to have one of the lowest population densities in Italy, second only to Reggio Calabria. The lack of neces- sity meant that the possibility of completely demolishing the walls to make room for urban expansion was never taken into consideration1. The overall urban structure of the city, therefore, only witnessed a few evolutionary events during the 19th century. An initial important change was, however, the creation of the Padua-Mestre railway line (1842), the first sec- tion of the line connecting the territories of...

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