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Corruption as Power

Criminal Governance in Peru during the Fujimori Era (1990-2000)

Alfredo Schulte-Bockholt

This book deals with the political corruption which infested Peru during the Fujimori years (1990-2000). The work is not about petty corruption, the small bribe paid to the underpaid police officer to avoid being booked for a minor traffic violation, but addresses the corruption of the powerful. Elites rely on corruption, and particularly in repressive regimes the practice is the most important tool of ‘criminal governance’. The author utilizes the concept of the protection racket developed by Max Horkheimer and Theodor Adorno from the Frankfurt School of Critical Theory to explain the links between political, economic, and societal elites in Fujimori’s Peru such as the military, political parties, multinational corporations, or conservative groups within the Catholic Church.

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Preface ................................................................................................. xi Introduction .................................................................................. xi Description of Chapters ................................................................ xi Acknowledgements ............................................................................ xv Chapter 1 Foreword on Peru ................................................................................ 1 1. Introduction ................................................................................... 1 2. A Short History of Fujimori’s Peru ............................................... 2 3. Fujimori and Montesinos: The Fearsome Twosome ..................... 5 4. Montesinos and Fujimori: The Formative Years ......................... 11 5. Conclusion ................................................................................... 17 Chapter 2 Definitions and Theories of Corruption. ............................................ 19 1. Introduction ................................................................................. 19 2. Defining Corruption .................................................................... 22 3. A Digression on Political Corruption .......................................... 32 4. On Theories of Corruption .......................................................... 34 5. Observations on the Dark Side of Politics ................................... 40 6. A Digression on State-Corporate Crime (and Criminology) ....................................................................... 50 7. Some Comments on Method ....................................................... 53 vi Chapter 3 Criminal Governance, Corruption and Power ................................... 59 1. Introduction ................................................................................. 59 2. Observations on Criminal Governance........................................ 60 Para-police Forces ....................................................................... 62 Informal Urban Policing .............................................................. 63 Urban Policing by Criminal Gangs ............................................. 63 Informal Policing in Rural Regions ............................................. 63 Private Security Companies ........................................................ 64 Paramilitary Policing and Social Cleansing ................................ 65 Rebel Forces ................................................................................ 66 3. Toward Understanding State Crime ............................................ 67 4. The Protection Racket: Toward a Model of Political Repression ..................................................................... 72 5. The Cardinal Players of the Fujimori Racket .............................. 81 The Servicio de Inteligencia Nacional (SIN) and the Military .... 81 The Private Sector ....................................................................... 81 The Media .................................................................................... 82 The Catholic Church and Opus Dei ............................................. 82 Criminal Organizations ............................................................... 83 6. Conclusion ................................................................................... 83 Chapter 4 Controlling Society: The SIN and the Military ................................... 85 1. Introduction ................................................................................. 85 2. Foreign Influences ....................................................................... 86 3. The Green Plan ............................................................................ 91 4. Analysis of a Coup ...................................................................... 92 5. Montesinos’ Death Squad: El Grupo Colina ............................... 98 6. A Short Digression on Population Politics ................................ 102 7. The...

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